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ielts-writing-model-answer-32

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 032

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 32

All of the model answers on this site are guaranteed band 9

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

We never know when the natural disaster will shatter an area and that is why the government should take every precaution to protect its citizens from natural disaster.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.


 

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 32

One of the primary responsibilities of government is to ensure that its citizens are safe and protected, and as such it is arguable that this should include consideration of environmental calamities, at least to a certain degree as will now be presented.


Primarily, the purpose of societies forming under a government is that this central authority can provide a level of security against forces beyond the average person’s control. This involves the establishment of procedures and from early warning systems for tsunamis, hurricane shelters and systems for emergency support .

In addition, the government should strongly encourage and support schools and other institutions to provide sufficient education and training to ensure people are prepared for natural disasters. For example, teaching early age school children to find shelter in a doorway or under a table during an earthquake has a direct impact on the number of casualties a natural disaster can cause.

However, this is not to say that the government has the sole responsibility for such preparations. Home owners, parents and citizens of all kinds should also be prepared for unforeseen major events. Simple acts such as having torches with batteries, a supply of fresh water, a radio and some blankets is something that can be done by the majority of people, giving them a much higher chance of surviving a range of natural disasters.

In sum, the first responsibility lies with the government in the form of planning and education, but each citizen is also required to contribute some time and effort to safeguard against unforeseen natural events.

 

(259 words)

word-of-the-day

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 3

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 3

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 3

WORD: suspend

WORD FAMILY:  verb

MEANING: exclude for a period of time, temporarily not allowed to join or be a part of something.

EXAMPLE: Children who misbehave at school are often suspended from class as punishment.

STRESS: sus-PEND

 

Pronunciation (click the play button below)

 

Practice!

Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb ‘suspend’.

1. He was caught stealing supplies from his workplace, so he for two weeks without pay – he starts back again next week.
Show the answer

has been suspended (was suspended is also correct)

2. The police officer should not have been involved because he for an earlier incident.
Show the answer

had been suspended

3. He’s going to the headmaster’s office now. Judging by the angry look on the headmasters face, I think he .
Show the answer

is going to be suspended
task-2

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 031

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 31

All of the model answers on this site are guaranteed band 9

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

International air travel has a negative impact upon the environment and should therefore be restricted.

Do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.


 

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 31

There are many strong arguments to be made in favour of any measure aimed at increasing environmental protection, yet imposing limitations on flights may not be the best solution, as will now be discussed.

Primarily, although air pollution is a significant factor, reducing travel by air would not necessarily reduce travel. Instead, people would likely rely even more on motor vehicles, even for longer journeys. This could actually lead to higher rates of pollution. To illustrate, it could potentially take over 300 private vehicles to transport the same number of passengers as can be carried on one flight.

Another issue to be considered is that air travel, although undertaken for many reasons, is a common method of transportation for business people. Reducing the number of flights may result in fewer business trips, which could then lead to less business, especially at an international level. Although this may be advantageous for the environment in the short term, it would not be a positive move for the global economy in the long term.

However, it could be argued that reducing flights may encourage business to be transacted in different ways, especially with increasing technologies. Yet this must be balanced with the environmental impact of discarded and obsolete communication devices, which could arguably pose an equal or greater ecological risk.

To conclude, although there is an impact on the environment, restriction on air travel does not offer the most appropriate solution to the problem. The best way forward is not limitation but research into cleaner, more environmentally friendly ways of air travel.

(285 words)

ending-a-task-1-letter

Ending a Task 1 letter

Ending a Task 1 letter

How you end a Task 1 letter depends on whether it was written in a formal, semi-formal or informal style. First, let’s briefly review formal, semi-formal and formal Task 1 examples.

Ending a Task 1 letterFormal: writing a job application letter, making a complaint to a company
Semi-formal: writing a letter to your teacher, booking a hotel room
Informal: writing to a friend or neighbour

Now let’s look at how the different levels of formality (register) determine the ending of the letter.

Ending a formal letter

Most formal letters end with either ‘Yours sincerely’ or ‘Yours faithfully’. Make sure you use the correct one! You should use ‘Yours sincerely’ if you have written the name of the person you are writing to, and yours faithfully if you didn’t use a name. To illustrate:

‘Dear Mr Smith’ > ends with > ‘Yours sincerely’

‘Dear Sir or Madam’ > ends with > ‘Yours faithfully’

 

Ending a semi formal letter

Semi-formal letters often in a shorter phrase or even a single word. For example ‘With thanks’ or just ‘Thanks’.

 

Ending an informal letter

The ending of informal letters often depends on the topic of the letter. For example, if you were writing to a friend who is coming to visit you soon, you could say this:

Anyway, looking forward to seeing you!

John

Or if the letter was about thanking a friend for something they did for you, you could say

Well, thanks again for your help,

John

word-of-the-day

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 2

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 2

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 2

WORD: schedule

WORD FAMILY: noun and verb

MEANING: plan, timetable, programme.

EXAMPLE (verb): I scheduled the appointment for the 23rd.

EXAMPLE (noun): He will be on a very busy schedule during his business trip.

STRESS: SCHED-ule

 

Pronunciation (click the play button below) NOTE: this is the British English pronunciation.

Practice!

In the following sentences, is SCHEDULE used as a noun or a verb?

1. He checked the schedule to see if he was working at the weekend.

Show the answer

This is a NOUN.

2. He was scheduled to speak at the conference, but he cancelled at the last minute.

Show the answer

This is a VERB.

3. The project was not completed on time, but this was partly because the steps were not clearly scheduled.

Show the answer

This is a VERB.
reading-test

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 2

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 2

Go back to Section 1 | Go to Section 3

This free IELTS reading test (Academic Module) has the same question types, content style, length and difficulty as a standard IELTS test. To get started simply scroll down to read the texts and answer the questions.

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 2Looking for more reading practice tests? Our online course has over 15 complete practice tests as well as end of lesson tests and reading texts used in the lessons.

When you have finished the test,make a note of the number of correct answers and move on to Section 3.

Section 2:


You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 – 26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.

Auckland’s Iconic Volcanoes

The City of Auckland is built on a known, and potentially active, volcanic field, with its most recent eruption only 600 years ago.

A) Imagine a modern city of more than 1.5 million people built on an active volcanic field of more than 50 volcanoes, with scientists and experts predicting that an eruption is likely within the next thousand, or, some say, even, hundreds, of years, which is a very short time span in the world of geology. Each of the existing, and now dormant and extinct, volcanoes erupted for just one period of time – the oldest volcano erupting nearly 250,000 years ago – and the eruptions usually lasted for just weeks for most of the volcanoes, with the exception of the most recent eruption, Rangitoto Island, which blew about 600 years ago, and which repeatedly spewed lava with a series of explosions. This was a particularly violent eruption, as the lava came into contact with the sea, and has been noted as the first New Zealand volcanic eruption which would have been witnessed by humans.

B) The volcanoes beneath Auckland have driven upward from a field of basaltic magma, a single source, and a wide pool of magma about 100 km below the city. This differs from other, large, volcanoes which have a central core of magma working up from below the surface, in that each of Auckland’s volcanoes is a separate eruption from the same pool, pushing through the surface in different locations, rather like porridge bubbling under heat, and unlikely to repeat in the same spot. The eruptions have tended to be small by volcanic standards, with most being less than 150 metres in height, but have grown increasingly bigger over time, with Rangitoto, the most recent, being the largest, with estimates of its volume of spewn material at 60% of the total.

C) The first volcano was recorded as Onepoto Volcano, at roughly 248,000 years ago, and the volcanic field extends from Lake Pupuke in the north to Wiri Mountain in the south, and from Mount Albert in the west to Pigeon Island in the east. Many of the volcanoes have had lava flows that run to the sea, and Auckland is built on the remains of the scoria cone volcanoes, scoria being a type of basalt rock very dark in colour. The scoria rock is pockmarked with holes where gas was trapped as the lava cooled, and the scoria rock is now widely used in road-building, landscaping, used as fill, and some volcanoes have been mined and quarried to the point where the volcanic cones have been mainly levelled, and in some cases, dug below the ground to extract the scoria. Other volcanoes, such as Mt. Eden, with its famous crater, and One Tree Hill, have become iconic landmarks of the city, recognizable by their physical attributes. Another impressive feature is the network of labyrinthian caves and tubes below the surface, and in 1942, the then-mayor of the Mt. Eden borough, R.J. Mills, put forward the suggestion that the caves could be used as war-time shelters. This was not a preposterous idea, as the indigenous people, the Maori, had used the caves as warring meeting places, and also a sacred place to hold the remains of the dead.

D) The volcanoes in Auckland are different from other types of volcanoes in New Zealand, and, indeed, other types of volcanoes around the world. Beneath Auckland lies a single field of hot rock, known as a ‘plume’, which causes some rock to melt, and the molten, liquid, rock then pushes toward the surface, creating a new volcano each time. The three main types of volcanoes found around the world are what are known as, firstly, ‘composite’ or ‘strato’ volcanoes, which are steep-sided volcanic cones formed from layers of ash and lava flows which cause the volcano to form a very high mountain of lava and rock and dust. These are some of the most famous volcanoes in the world, such as Mt. Fuji in Japan and Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. A second type of volcano is known as the ‘shield’ volcano, which are the types of volcanoes associated with Hawaii, with generally low sloping sides with fast-moving lava strata, one on top of the other. And the third general type of volcano is called the ‘dome’ volcano, with steep sides and thick lava, which hardens rapidly so that it does not flow great distances. Examples of these are the many volcanoes in South America, such as the Chaiten lava dome which erupted in 2009. Auckland’s volcanoes are known as monogenetic, and, as the name suggests, they come from one source, the single field of hot rock. Other examples are found in Mexico and in British Columbia, in Canada.

E) So, the question must be asked, with a projected population of nearly 2 million people living on this field of hot, and sometimes molten, rock, what are the dangers associated with this natural phenomenon? As Auckland is New Zealand’s largest centre, and the commercial heart of the country, major infrastructure disruptions to transport, communications, and commercial and industrial activity would be expected, and the potential loss of residential and commercial buildings could see the shutting down of large portions of the city, if not the entire urban area. Scientists have noted that not only one eruption is possible, but many, over a short period of time. There are indications that 32,000 years ago there were five eruptions within 50 years. In addition to the immediate hazards an eruption would bring, there are also secondary dangers, such as shock waves, volcanic gases, earthquakes (which may also precede an eruption) and tsunamis.

F) To prepare for such eventualities, there is a network of civil defence and emergency services, as well as seismic monitoring stations, including satellite imagery which detects the slightest changes in the shape and bulging of the earth in the immediate region. Experts from the Ministry of Civil Defence note that the network of seismometers, which measure earth tremors linked to the movement of magma at deep levels indicate that the seismicity in the Auckland region is very low, which makes it easier to detect the ‘subtle signs of an impending eruption’. However, all experts agree that it is not a matter of if another volcano erupts, but when. Attention now turns to predicting and pinpointing where such an eruption might occur, the likely effects of a land-based eruption or one under the seabed, a ‘phreatomagmatic’ (steam-generating) eruption, and the required steps to limit the damage. The earth is ever-evolving, and Auckland’s dramatic volcanic past, and it’s potentially volatile future is testimony to this change.

 


Questions 14 – 19

 

Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A – F.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A – F from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, i – viii, in boxes 14 – 19 on your answer sheet.

 

NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so not all headings will be used.

List of Headings

  •  i       Auckland’s unique volcanic field  
  •  ii      Rangitoto, Auckland’s largest volcano
  •  iii     An unlikely scenario, with an uncertain future
  •  iv     Global categories of volcanoes
  •  v     Will there be another eruption?
  •  vi     Details of Auckland’s many volcanoes
  •  vii   Auckland’s volcanoes and volcanoes in other countries
  •  viii   The dangers of an eruption are many

14   Paragraph A 
Show answer iii   The opening sentence gives an ‘unlikely’ scenario, a city of more than 1.5 million people living on an active volcanic field, and discussing future eruptions, at an unknown time.

15   Paragraph B 
Show answer i   The key word is ‘unique’. The second sentence states, ‘This differs from…’.

16   Paragraph C 
Show answer vi   This paragraph gives much information about a number of volcanoes in Auckland.

17   Paragraph D 
Show answer iv   This paragraph details four main types of volcanoes around the world, and gives worldwide examples.

18    Paragraph E 
Show answer viii   This paragraph gives details about the dangers and the impact of an eruption, including secondary dangers.

19   Paragraph F 
Show answer v   This paragraph answers the question ‘Will there be…’ and states ‘not if, but when’ a future eruption might occur, and details the various monitoring systems in place.


Questions 20 – 24

The reading passage describes four basic types of volcanoes. Classify each of the statements according to the type of volcano.

Write the letters A – D in boxes 20 – 24 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

  • A   Shield
  • B   Monogenetic
  • C   Composite, or Strato
  • D   Dome

20   The volcano originates from a ‘plume’, a field of hot or molten rock.
Show answer B   Paragraph B states that Auckland’s volcanoes come from a ‘single source’, and Para D says they are ‘monogenetic’, coming from one source.

21   These are generally the highest volcanoes found.
Show answer C   Para D says ‘composite’ volcanoes are steep-sided with a ‘very high mountain of lava…’. The other volcanoes are lower, or not their height is not mentioned.

22   The lava cools quickly so that it stays localized.
Show answer D   Para D says the ‘lava hardens rapidly so that it does not flow great distances.’

23   Layers of lava flow quickly.
Show answer A   Para D says Shield volcanoes have ‘fast-moving lava strata, one on top of the other.’

24   One example of this type of volcano erupted recently.
Show answer D   Para D says Chaiten lava dome in South America erupted in 2009. Questions 25 – 26

Complete the sentences using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.

Write your answers in boxes 25 – 26 on your answer sheet.

25   As well as immediate destruction of infrastructure following an eruption, , such as air-borne tremors, gases and massive tidal waves, may occur.
Show answer secondary dangers   Para E describes the hazards of an eruption, with a key word ‘infrastructure’, and mentions ‘secondary dangers’, and gives examples.

26   A volcano which erupts under the ocean floor produces volumes of steam, and is known as a   volcano.
Show answer phreatomagmatic   Para F mentions volcanoes under the seabed (‘ocean floor’) and says they are steam-generating (‘produces volumes of steam’)./expand]

 

Show All correct answers

Once you have finished, check your answers, then move on to Section 3

reading-test

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 1

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 1

Go to Section 2 | Go to Section 3

This free IELTS reading test (Academic Module) has the same question types, content style, length and difficulty as a standard IELTS test. To get started, simply scroll down to read the texts and answer the questions.

Looking for more reading practice tests? Our online course has over 15 complete practice tests as well as end of lesson tests and reading texts used in the lessons.

To see which of your answers were marked as correct or incorrect, click ‘Show answer’. When completed, move on to Section 2.

Section 1:


Questions 1 – 13

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 – 13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

Language Learning

Is the learning of a language the result of hard work, or an innate talent?

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 1 With an increasingly globalized economy – and world, language continues to take on a growing and more and more crucial role in social and business communication. With countries, societies, companies and communities interacting more, it is vital that language is easily learned, understood and used to facilitate commerce, communication and cooperation. As a result, much attention has been focused recently on the science of linguistics, that is, language learning, by scholars and users, both the skills required and the difficulties encountered. Not only young children, the traditional learners of a new language, but also young adults, and, more and more, adults, business people, housewives, and those with an interest, are enrolling in courses in an attempt to master a second, or even a third, language.

So, what are the skills required, and what are the difficulties that are often encountered?  Many linguists hold the view that there is no specific skill involved, instead, it depends on the reason why a particular person is attempting to master another language. Robert Bigler, who is a simultaneous interpreter and speaks five languages fluently, and others with different degrees of fluency, says, “Learning a language requires dedication more than anything else. It is not difficult but certainly time-consuming. I’m convinced we all can learn any language to a degree that allows us to communicate in that language if we are serious about it. As long as you are motivated…, you will succeed.”

There is much debate among scholars as to the importance of innate ability, and whether it is connected with cognitive abilities. While it is generally recognized that learners with better cognitive skills, that is, understanding and learning abilities, will make greater progress, there is no general agreement as to whether there is a specific language learning skill that is stronger in some learners than others. For example, according to Peter Shoebottom, a linguist and teacher,research supports the idea that learning another language from the same language family will be easier than, say, a European learner attempting to master an Asian language, which suggests that there are other factors which are more important than ability or talent.

However, there is general agreement on some of the factors which assist language learning. Aaron Ralby, a director of one learning institute, insists that the method used, traditional or modern, books or computers or teachers, is not that important. What is important, he feels, is that the student should easily adapt to the method, because the learning takes place within the student. Another factor is one’s preconceived notions of how difficult learning a language may be. Many people believe learning a language is one of the most difficult learning  tasks. Jana Fadness, a multi-lingual speaker, learned Japanese, a difficult language for non-Asian speakers, and was not concerned with how ‘difficult’ the language might have been to learn, but rather felt that the reason driving the learning was more important. As she put it, “Rather than asking ourselves ‘Is this difficult?’, I think we should be asking ‘Is this really worth doing?’. If the answer is yes, then we should just do it. Difficulty is irrelevant.”

And the difficulties? As mentioned before, attitude is one serious hindrance in the acquisition of a second language. Attitude, as in believing that learning a language is too difficult, or even in questioning why one has to acquire a second language, or, specifically, a certain language, can be a major determining factor in success in learning. Linguists and experts who studied language learning in the 1970s in Canada found there was a poor success rate, in particular for the English-speaking population attempting to learn French, owing to the tension between the two populations at the time. As well, there is general agreement that ‘rigid thinking’, that is, a reluctance to accept, or even attempt to understand, other languages’ grammar rules, irregularities and new vocabulary, is a major obstacle to the acquisition of a new language. Again, there is growing belief that one of the key aspects in overcoming these obstacles is one’s attitude and desire to learn, often more so than a perceived innate ability.

Interestingly, Kerstin Hammes, who is the editor of an on-line site dealing with language learning, makes the observation that it is essential to have a basic understanding of how one’s own language works. This is an interesting viewpoint, given the tendency in most Western education systems to move away from a grammar-based English language discipline. The observation has often been made by scholars and educationists that it is likely that foreign language learners often have a better understanding of the grammar rules of the target language than the native speakers do, although native speakers obviously have an acquired grasp of the language stemming from childhood learning.

It would appear, then, that individual variations in the learning of a second language may be the most important factor in the degree of success in the taking on of a new language. Issues such as age, the question of learning in a classroom versus learning in a natural setting, motivation, desire, perceived biases against the second language and, indeed, ability, mean that the establishment of criteria necessary for successful language learning is a science far more complicated than initially considered. To return to the words of Robert Bigler, perhaps the crucial key is his observation that “As long as you are motivated…, you will succeed.” As much as in life as well.

 

Questions 1 – 5  

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1 – 5 on your answer sheet write

  •      TRUE                      if the statement agrees with the information
  •      FALSE                    if the statement contradicts the information
  •      NOT GIVEN         if there is no information on this in the passage

 

1   The science of language learning has become an issue for academics, linguists and, indeed, the

learners themselves.
Show answer True   Para 1 mentions all the people who are interested in language learning, and why this is. “…much attention has been focused recently…”

2   Adults find it more difficult to learn a new language than young children do.
Show answer Not Given   Para 1 mentions that “young children, the traditional learners” are learning new languages, and also young adults and adults, but there is no mention of whether it is easier.

3   Evidence suggests that language learners find it much more difficult to learn languages from other language groups than their own.
Show answer True   Para 3 states that “learning another language from the same language family will be easier than… (another) language (family).

4   It is now believed that ‘rigid thinking’ is the most serious drawback in learning a new language.
Show answer Not given   Para 5 states that ‘rigid thinking’ is a major obstacle, but does not say it is the most serious.

5   On-line learning sites make it easier for learners to have a basic understanding of how language works.
Show answer Not Given   Para 6 mentions on-line sites and makes the point that ‘it is essential to have a basic understanding of one’s own language’, but does not say whether it is easier on-line.


Questions 6 – 10

The writer refers to various opinions offered made by individuals in the reading passage. Match the people (A – F) with the opinions made in Questions 6 – 10.

NB: Some names might not be used. Write the appropriate letter (A – F) in boxes 6 – 10 on your answer sheet.

A. Peter Shoebottom
B. Jana Fadness
C. Robert Bigler
D. Kerstin Hammes
E. Aaron Ralby
F. A general observation of linguists and academics

6. It’s not as important whether it’s a traditional or modern approach to language learning, rather, it’s how the the learner embraces the method.  Show answer E   Aaron Ralby Para 4 mentions ‘method’, but says it is not as important as how the learner adapts to it.

7. It is critical to have a grasp of your own language rules, which will help in understanding how language works.  Show answer D   Kerstin Hammes Para 6 says that Hammes believes ‘it is essential to have a basic understanding of how one’s own language works.’

8. Although learning a language can take a long time, the motivation of the learner is a key factor.  Show answer C   Robert Bigler Para 2 and Para 7 repeats the comment that ‘As long as your are motivated…, you will succeed.’

9. Language learners should not worry about the degree of difficulty involved, but rather, should focus on the reasons why they are learning the language.   Show answer B   Jana Fadness Para 4 says that Fadness ‘was not concerned with how ‘difficult’ the language might have been to learn’, and the rest of the paragraph develops this view.

10. It is not unusual for students of a language to better understand the grammar regulations of their new language than the native speakers.  Show answerF   General observation Para 6 states ‘the observation has often been made by scholars and educationists that it is likely that foreign language learners often have a better understanding of the grammar rules… than native speakers…’


Questions 11 – 13

Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from Reading Passage 1 for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 11 – 13 on your answer sheet.

  • It is universally believed that that those with better 11 ………….………………….. abilities will learn a language more easily than those who don’t possess these skills.
  • One problem for Canadians learning the other official language in their country in the 1970s was the 12 …………………………… between the speakers of the two official languages at the time.
  • Linguists agree that to be 13 ………………………….. is most likely to be one of the most critical factors in acquiring a second language.

11.    Show answer cognitive Para 3 ‘While it is generally recognized that learners with better cognitive skills… will make greater progress…’

12.    Show answer tension Para 5 states ‘…owing to the tension between the two populations at the time.’

13.     Show answer motivated Para 2 and Para 7 both state ‘As long as you are motivated…’, and Para 7 mentions a ‘crucial key’

 

Show All correct answers

Once you have finished, check your answers, then move on to  Section 2

reading-test

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 3

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 3

Go back to Section 1 | Go back to Section 2

This free IELTS reading test (Academic Module) has the same question types, content style, length and difficulty as a standard IELTS test. To get started simply scroll down to read the texts and answer the questions.

Free IELTS Academic Reading test 4 Section 3Looking for more reading practice tests? Our online course has over 15 complete practice tests as well as end of lesson tests and reading texts used in the lessons.

When you have finished the test,make a note of the number of correct answers check your score with our band score converter.

Section 3:

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.


 

THE NON-MILITARY USES OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

 

A. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown dramatically over the past decade or so, in no small part due to the fact that some of these machines are able to remain airborne for longer periods of time than more conventional manned aircraft. At the same time, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), and remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs), nowadays commonly referred to as drones, are generally credited with being both more cost-effective to operate and maintain, as well as safer to use, than piloted aircraft. The term drone may also refer to small electric helicopters fitted with two or more rotors which are flown by remote control.

 

B. Today, drones are being used with increasing frequency for military operations by a number of countries in combat, surveillance and reconnaissance roles. These machines tend to be larger than non-military drones and are, in the main, powered by jet or gas engines. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the use of drone technology has gained a measure of notoriety as a result of their growing prominence in military roles, which have been widely publicised in television, online and print media during the last decade and a half, leading to criticism of their application in this arena on both ethical and legal grounds.

 

C. While originally and currently still primarily used for military purposes, the rapid growth and development in drone technology during the early twenty-first century has led some experts to predict that, by 2020, there will be approximately 30,000 licensed drones operating in the skies above the United States alone. It has also been estimated that the economic value of the commercial drone market will rise in value to around $90 billion globally during the next five years, as well as create as many as 150,000 new jobs by 2025. A projection by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International estimates that agricultural applications will one day account for approximately 80 percent of commercial drone use.

 

D. One development related to the commercial use of drones which has perhaps received the greatest amount of news and media coverage in recent years is the establishment of Amazon Prime Air in December 2013 by the US-based online retail giant, Amazon.com. At this stage, Amazon Prime Air’s drone-based delivery system for its customers’ purchases remains very much a work in progress, although the company has been granted permission by the US Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) to begin testing its current prototypes under certain restrictions.

 

E. As far as aerial filming and photography are concerned, commercial drones have a number of applications in industries ranging from those of movie production and the news media, to real estate, telecommunications and security. More specific uses in these fields include, though are by no means limited to, taking promotional photos and videos for commercial and residential properties on the market, filming breaking-news stories and live sports events, producing footage from unique perspectives for movies and carrying out security and surveillance functions in the detection of criminal activity and identification of criminals.

 

F. In addition to the delivery of consumer products and other commercial applications, non-military drones are gaining popularity for use in search and rescue operations. Drone-mounted cameras enable unmanned aerial vehicles to follow pre-programmed search patterns when looking for missing persons and victims of natural disasters across a variety of otherwise inaccessible terrain types, including marine environments. With the addition of infrared thermal imaging camera technology, drones can also carry out search and rescue missions after dark, with much greater manoeuvrability and at less cost than using a helicopter, for example.

 

G. These days, drones are increasingly being used by national government agencies and local authorities for a variety of purposes outside of the private sector. Transport agencies, both road and rail, make use of unmanned aerial vehicles for monitoring traffic flow and reporting accidents and hazards, while civil planners utilise the technology to assist with mapping and surveying work. Fire departments in some jurisdictions now rely on UAVs to help them reduce risks and costs when fighting fires in both urban and rural areas, while customs and law enforcement agencies also employ drone technology in protecting citizens and borders through monitoring and surveillance.

 

H. In terms of the natural world, scientists and researchers are turning to drones with greater frequency to monitor, document and assess changes in the health, movement and distribution of flora and fauna, as well as pollution, weather and the climate, both conveniently and cost-effectively. Unmanned aircraft are today being used not only in environmental and ecological research, but also as cutting-edge tools to assist in wildlife conservation efforts. In the latter capacity, drone technology is now being used by both governmental agencies and non-governmental organisations in the surveillance and prevention of illegal hunting and poaching of a number of endangered species.

 

I. While advocates of drones are quick to point out all of the many benefits that the machines can bring to society and the planet, the technology is not without its critics. Those opposed to the growing use of unmanned aerial vehicles cite a number of negative aspects related to the seemingly inexorable rise of drones and their myriad possible applications in our lives. These include logistical concerns such as the comparatively short flight times of smaller UAVs (presently between 30 and 45 minutes) and their operational limitations in terms of spatial mobility. Other perceived disadvantages are safety risks, in the potential for collisions across increasingly crowded airspace, and even the adverse effects drones may have on the natural environment, particularly as contributors to noise pollution.

 

J. Whether for commercial or recreational applications or being used as tools to assist those working in the public sector, it would appear that the numerical proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as their numerous potential uses, means that the impact of drone technology in our lives is only set to increase. While there are undoubtedly issues yet to be resolved regarding the use of drones, particularly in relation to regulatory oversight and legal restrictions on the part of relevant authorities, the futuristic technology afforded us in the form of these robotic vehicles indicates that not the sky, but rather the solar system and beyond, may be the limit.

 


Questions 27-33

Reading Passage 3 has ten paragraphs, A-J.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 27-32 on our answer sheet.

NB   You may use any letter more than once.

27     drone technology for use in farming
Show answer C Paragraph C states: “A projection by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International estimates that agricultural applications will one day account for approximately 80 percent of commercial drone use.”

28     potential drawbacks of non-military drones
Show answerI Paragraph I details “a number of negative aspects related to the seemingly inexorable rise of drones and their myriad possible applications in our lives.

29     the sale of housing
Show answerE Paragraph E reads: “commercial drones have a number of applications in industries ranging from those of movie production and the news media, to real estate, telecommunications and security. More specific uses in these fields include, though are by no means limited to, taking promotional photos and videos for commercial and residential properties on the market…”

30     the preservation of plants and animals
Show answerH Paragraph H states: “Unmanned aircraft are today being used not only in environmental and ecological research, but also as cutting-edge tools to assist in wildlife conservation efforts”

31     using drones at night
Show answer F Paragraph F states: “With the addition of infrared thermal imaging camera technology, drones can also carry out search and rescue missions after dark, with much greater manoeuvrability and at less cost than using a helicopter, for example”

32     employment opportunities related to UAVs
Show answer C Paragraph C reads: “It has also been estimated that the economic value of the commercial drone market will rise in value to be worth around $90 billion globally during the next five years, as well as create as many as 150,000 new jobs by 2025.”

33     the use of drones in monitoring automobiles
Show answer33 G Paragraph G states: “Transport agencies, both road and rail, make use of unmanned aerial vehicles for monitoring traffic flow and reporting accidents and hazards, while civil planners utilise the technology to assist with mapping and surveying work.”

 

Questions 34-38

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet, write

  • TRUE                     if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE                   if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN         if there is no information on this

34      Drones are often cheaper to use than manned aircraft.
Show answer TRUE Paragraph A states that drones “are generally credited with being both more cost-effective to operate and maintain… …than piloted aircraft”

35       In the future, the majority of private sector drones are likely to be used in farming.
Show answer TRUE Paragraph C states: “A projection by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International estimates that agricultural applications will one day account for approximately 80 percent of commercial drone usage.”

36       Amazon is presently using drones to deliver items purchased online.
Show answer FALSE Paragraph D states that “Amazon Prime Air’s drone-based delivery system for its customers’ purchases remains very much a work in progress…”

37       Drone technology is used to help rescue people lost at sea.
Show answerTRUE Paragraph F states: “Drone-mounted cameras enable unmanned aerial vehicles to follow pre-programmed search patterns when looking for missing persons and victims of natural disasters across a variety of otherwise inaccessible terrain types, including marine environments…

38       Drones contribute to air pollution.
Show answer NOT GIVEN While Paragraph I mentions noise pollution, air pollution is NOT specifically mention in the passage. Questions 39-40

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO of the following are mentioned as being risks or drawbacks associated with drone technology?

  • A      the cost of fighting fires
  • B      duration of flights
  • C       criminal activity
  • D       mid-air collisions
  • E       the unstoppable rise of drones

39.  Show answer B or D – Paragraph I mentions both “comparatively short flight times of smaller UAVs” and “the potential for collisions across increasingly crowded airspace” as “negative aspects related to the seemingly inexorable rise of drones”.

40.  Show answer B or D – Paragraph I mentions both “comparatively short flight times of smaller UAVs” and “the potential for collisions across increasingly crowded airspace” as “negative aspects related to the seemingly inexorable rise of drones”.

 

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word-of-the-day

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 1

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 1

IELTS word of the day Set 2 word 1

WORD: highlight

WORD FAMILY: verb

MEANING: draw attention to, emphasise.

EXAMPLE: The increase in the number of homeless people highlights the need for better social welfare.

STRESS: HIGH-light

 

Pronunciation (click the play button below)

Practice!

Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb ‘highlight’. More than one answer may be possible.

1. The investigation findings a security weakness.
Show the answer

highlighted or have highlighted

2. Later in this talk, I the importance of healthy eating.
Show the answer

will highlight or am going to highlight

3. Last night’s news story the dangers of driving after drinking alcohol.
Show the answer

highlighted
Listening test #1

Free IELTS listening test 4 Section 1

Free IELTS listening test 4 Section 1

Jump to Section 2 | Jump to Section 3 | Jump to Section 4

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Free IELTS listening test 4 Section 1We strongly recommend that you do not pause the recording during this practice test – the exact timing you will have in the IELTS test is already built in, so pausing the recording will not give you an accurate idea of your level.

When you have finished the test, take a note of the number of correct answers you got and move on to Section 2.

SECTION 1

Section 1 Questions 1-10

Complete the form below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

SPCA Application for Dog Adoption

Example answer:

Applicant details Name: Helen Morgan

Date of Interview: September the (1)   Show answer 17th

Address: 12 Towley Avenue, Meadowlea

Tel: 443 5421

Lifestyle Details

Work schedule: At home apart from Wed/Fri between 10 am and (2) Show answer 2.30pm

Reason for Adopting a dog: As a (3) Show answer (family) pet

Number of people permanently living in household: (4) Show answer2

Ages (years) of children who visit regularly: (5) and 6. Show answer3

Allergies to dogs: None

Main carer: Applicant and (6) Show answer(her) husband

Property details

Home owned or rented: rented

Landlord’s contact number: 0795 (7) Show answer722 4189

Fenced yard/garden: Yes

Height of fence: (8) Show answer1.5 metres

Previous Ownership

Breed (9) Show answermix / mixed (breed)

Time owned (10) Show answer 6 years

What happened? Died of old age

Click here to read the transcript
SPCA Rep Hello, welcome to the SPCA. Thanks for coming in for the interview. I know it must seem like quite a complicated process, when all you simply want to do is give an unwanted dog a caring home. However, we need to be sure that the people we re-home dogs with are suitable owners. I hope you understand!
Applicant Yes I do, don’t worry it really is no problem.
SPCA Rep Great, well in this interview, we are just going to go over some details relevant to matching you with the right kind of dog and Ill put some details into the computer as we talk. So your name is Helen Morgan?
Applicant Yes, that’s right.
SPCA Rep Okay and today’s date is. (Q1) September 18th, hmm oh no, its the 18th tomorrow, so its the 17th. Now I have all the address details here from when you first arranged the interview, that’s fine. 12 Towley Avenue , Meadow Lea, telephone number 443 5421, no problem with that, and I can see that you don’t have any pets at the moment. Oh, there is no information here about your work schedule. we need to know how long the dog would be likely to be left on its own you see.
Applicant Well, I actually work full-time, but I run my own business from home. I am at home all day most of the week, apart from Wednesdays and Fridays when I work outside from 10.00 to (Q2) 2.30pm
SPCA Rep Okay, well that sounds fine. We don’t normally allow dogs to go to homes where no one would be at home all day every day.
Applicant I understand.
SPCA Rep Now I need to ask you, why you are interested in adopting a dog – I mean, people do for different reasons. Would you say that you want the dog to be a guard dog for protection of your property I mean – or to be a family pet?
Applicant Well, it would be nice to have a dog that can tell us when someone is coming of course! But we don’t want a big dog that would be stereotypical guard dog, it would actually be a (Q3) family pet for myself and my husband, but we do plan to have children in the near future, so it would need to have a temperament that would be good with children.
SPCA Rep Yes, okay. So how many people live in your house?
Applicant Just the (Q4) two of us. Though my brother stays with us for summer holidays when he isn’t at university.
SPCA Rep And do you have children who visit on a regular basis?
Applicant Yes my two nieces, they are (Q5) 3 and 6. They visit most weekends with my sister.
SPCA Rep Okay, and is anyone living in the house allergic to animals?
Applicant My husband is allergic to cats but not dogs!
SPCA Rep So who will be responsible for the daily care of the pet?
Applicant Well my (Q6) husband works from home too, so it would be a joint effort between myself and him.
SPCA Rep Okay. Now, do you rent or own your home?
Applicant Actually we rent, but our landlord, Johnathon, has no problem with us having a dog, we’ve already checked with him and we are going to buy our own house in a few months anyway.
SPCA Rep Well, I hope you don’t mind, but we do need to check everything is okay, ourselves. Could you give me Jonathon’s phone number so we can make a confirmation call?
Applicant Sure, Ill give you his mobile number. Its 0795 (Q7) 722 4189
SPCA Rep ?
Applicant No 4189
SPCA Rep Okay. Now we need to be sure they animal would be safe from roads and traffic. Do you have a fenced yard or garden?
Applicant Yes we do
SPCA Rep And can you give me an idea how tall the fence is? Again it affects the type of dog that would be suitable as so can jump lower fences!
Applicant Actually, my friend adopted a dog last year and she told me that would be one of the questions, so I know exactly! Its (Q8) 1.5 metres tall
SPCA Rep Okay, now I just need to check your previous experience with dogs. Can you tell me if you have ever owned a dog before?
Applicant Yes, I have. We had dogs when I was a child but I have had only one myself as an adult.
SPCA Rep What breed was it?
Applicant It was (Q9) mixed breed actually, a medium sized dog, I would say. He was really friendly.
SPCA Rep Okay, and how long did you have him for?
Applicant 5, no wait a minute, (Q10) 6 years
SPCA Rep Do you mind telling me what happened to it?
Applicant Well, he was rescue dog and wasn’t young when I adopted him, so he died from age-related natural causes.
SPCA Rep Okay, well thanks very much. You are welcome to go and have a look at the dogs that are here at the moment, but it will take 3 or 4 days to confirm approval of your application. Ill telephone you and let you know the outcome as soon as it has been processed.
Applicant Okay, well thanks very much and I look forward to hearing from you

 

Show All correct answers

Once you have finished, check your answers then move on to Section 2.