Category Archives: IELTS Reading (all)

reading-test

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 2

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 2

Go back to Section 1 | Section 3

This free IELTS reading test (General Training) has the same question types, content style, length and difficulty as a standard IELTS test. To get started simply scroll down to read the texts and answer the questions.

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 2Looking for more reading practice tests? Our online course has over 15 complete practice tests as well as end of lesson tests and reading texts used in the lessons.


Important notes before you begin this section of the test:

  • There is a box beside each question for you to write your answer
  • When you have finished (or after any question) click the ‘Show answers’ link to see the answer(s) and an explanation
  • This is a General Training Section 2, which means there is either two or three short reading texts that you need to use to complete the section
  • When you have finished on this page, count the number of correct answers you have and make a note. When you have completed the full test, go to the band score converter to find out your approximate IELTS band score

Section 2

Read the text below and answer the questions that follow.

Corbridge teacher training

Welcome to the Corbridge teacher training course. Please keep this guide with you throughout the course so you know the structure of what you are studying.

Week 1
In the first week, trainees are typically introduced to different teaching methodologies and styles as modelled by your trainers. This first week requires a significant amount of reading and discussion, but at this point you will not be expected to do any teaching.

Week 2
During your second week, classroom practice begins. At this stage you will be delivering short lessons to small groups of students. You will not be required to plan the lessons at this point, but you will be observed by your peers. You will also be expected to hand in your first draft of assignment 1 – a lesson plan (at this point you will still be permitted to use published resources).


Week 3
At this point comes an intensive study into grammar; although you may know which tenses and voice to use for each situation, you need to develop the ability to actually impart this information in a coherent and learnable manner. For many trainees, it can come as a surprise to find that they actually had no clear understanding of the mechanics of their own language, and this can be as difficult to learn as it is for non-native speakers! You will also be presenting to larger groups of students and will be formally marked on your classroom performance. The first assignment needs to be handed in to your teacher trainers.

Week 4
You will deliver five lessons to varying group sizes, ages and on different aspects of the language; each lesson will be monitored and your final grade based on how you are assessed.  You will also be required to hand in your second assignment. Remember that, unlike the first assignment, this assignment must be computer typed.

NOTE: Towards the end of the course, the numbers of lessons trainees have to deliver increases, as does the criticism of their performance. There is a high dropout rate from the third week as many people find the pressure of being assessed by their mentors and their peers too much to handle, and the rate at which trainees leave increases in the following week. If you are feeling under pressure it is important to talk to your teacher trainer immediately.

Questions 15-20

For which rules are the following statements true? Write the correct letter A-D in boxes 15 – 17 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.

  • A. Week #1
  • B. Week #2
  • C. Week #3
  • D. Week #4

15. The first assignment must be completed.
Show answer

C (week 3) – “The first assignment needs to be handed in to your teacher trainers” (in Week 2 a draft needs to be submitted)

16. The first assessed teaching is done.
Show answer

C (week 3) – “You will also be presenting to larger groups of students and will be formally marked on your classroom performance”

17. Different ways of teaching are demonstrated.
Show answer

A (week 1) – “different teaching methodologies and styles”

Look at the statements below. In boxes 24 – 26 on your answer sheet write,

  • TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
  • FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

18. Assignment 1 can be hand written.
Show answer

True – “Remember that, unlike the first assignment, this assignment must be computer typed”.

19. The grammar training is easy for native speakers.
Show answer

False – “For many trainees, it can come as a surprise to find that they actually had no clear understanding of the mechanics of their own language, and this can be as difficult to learn as it is for non-native speakers!”

20. The fourth week has the most trainees quitting the course.
Show answer

True – “There is a high dropout rate from the third week …and the rate at which trainees leave increases in the following week”.

 

Questions 21-26 relate to the reading passage below.

Read the text and answer the questions that follow.

To all staff

Starting the 3rd of next month, there will be a number training sessions for all staff. Attendance at the first and second session is compulsory, as well as one additional session which you may choose from the remaining options.  Please note that seating may be limited so you should arrange with your supervisor which of the sessions you would like to attend.

Session 1: Dealing with complaints. Ms Weldgrove will be facilitating this session aimed at making sure that all staff are aware of current office policy regarding complaints.  There have been some incidents recently that have not been handled effectively so this session will focus on appropriate procedures when dealing with complaints. As this is a compulsory session, attendance will be high so we will be using the main conference room on the third floor.

Session 2: Company image. As you should all be aware, the company is changing its image and branding colours, and this is expected to be completed within the next month. This will require a number of changes to the logo, stationery and uniforms for front-of-house staff. Business cards will be changed, although this is expected to take a little longer. Mark Lorins has organised and will run this training session, focusing on what is expected from your during the changeover period. This will also be held in the conference room on the third floor

Session 3: Word processing suite. Gordon Sumner will be offering training in the new word processing software that is being installed in all departments over the next few weeks. There will also be a guest speaker from MacroSwift to introduce the new Visual Presentation software. The session will be in the computer room; there are 70 places available for this seminar so it is recommended you confirm attendance as soon as possible to avoid disappointment.

Session 4: Internal communication systems. This is more of a refresher course, in that Jane Williams will be running through policies and procedures for internal messaging that you should already be familiar with. She will be joined by Ruth Madocs from the HR department. Due to space requirements, this session will be held in the conference room in the Logan Hotel.

Questions 21-23

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet.

21. Staff…

  • A. must attend all sessions.
  • B. must attend only the first and second session.
  • C. do not have to attend if they make arrangements with their supervisor.
  • D. must attend 3 sessions.


Show answer

D – “Attendance at the first and second session is compulsory, as well as one additional session”

 

22. The first session…

  • A.is about how to make a complaint.
  • B. has been arranged because of previous problems.
  • C. will be held outside the company.
  • D. is likely to have few attendees.


Show answer

B – “There have been some incidents recently that have not been handled effectively so this session will focus on appropriate procedures when dealing with complaints.”

 

23. The third session…

  • A. is the only one to have two facilitators
  • B. will have 2 speakers from another company
  • C. is already fully booked
  • D. has limited seating


Show answer

 D – “there are 70 places available for this seminar”

Questions 24-26

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

24. Which session will not be held in the company? 
Show answer

Session 4: “this session will be held in the conference room in the Logan Hotel.”

25. Which session will have two facilitators from within the company? 
Show answer

Session 4: “Jane Williams … joined by Ruth Madocs from the HR department” (session 3 has a facilitator from another company)

26. Which session is to prepare staff for future changes? 
Show answer

Session 2: “… changing its image and branding colours, and this is expected to be completed within the next month”

27. Which session is to discuss recent problems? 
Show answer

Session 1: “Dealing with complaints…. There have been some incidents recently that have not been handled effectively”

Show All correct answers


 

You have now completed Section 2. Take a note of the number of correct answers, then move on to Section 3.

reading-test

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 1

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 1

Section 1

Section 2 | Section 3

This free IELTS reading test (General Training) has the same question types, content style, length and difficulty as a standard IELTS test. To get started simply scroll down to read the texts and answer the questions.

Free IELTS General Training Reading test 3 Section 1Looking for more reading practice tests? Our online course has over 15 complete practice tests as well as end of lesson tests and reading texts used in the lessons.

When you have finished the test, click the ‘Finish quiz’ button. To see which of your answers were marked as correct or incorrect, click the ‘View questions’ button. When completed, move on to Section 2.

Section 1:


 

Dear Householder,

Request for unwanted but useful items for school jumble sale

As part of this year’s fund-raising event, Edgehill College will be holding a jumble sale on May 24th. All profits will be used to assist in funding of the new children’s play ground in the centre of town.

We are now requesting donations of unwanted but useful items of usable quality to sell on our jumble sale stalls. We would much appreciate donations in any of the following categories:

  • Clothes – Please place washed items in bags or boxes and mark them ‘For Men’, ‘For Women’ or ‘For Children’
  • Kitchenware – any items are of use (e.g. plates, cups, glasses, cooking utensils, kitchen equipment such as food mixers etc), currently in short supply.
  • Books– complete books (no missing pages), we are especially looking for children’s novels.
  • Miscellaneous – Ornaments, pictures, toys, games, handbags etc. Please place in boxes and write the names of the items inside clearly on the box.

We will also be collecting food which will be donated to the local homeless shelter. If you wish to make a food donation please provide tinned, dried or packet foodstuffs only.  Please do not donate food items that are likely to spoil.

If you are able to, please bring your donated items to the school reception (Monday to Friday between 9.30am and 3.00pm).  Otherwise, for larger loads, if you are unable to get to school, we can arrange for a member of the team to collect your items. Please ring 762 8894 and ask to speak to Mr William Taylor our School Liaison Officer who will arrange for one of our volunteer parents to pick up your donation.

On a final note, we are also still looking for additional volunteers to take care of stalls on the day of the jumble sale.  The event will take place between 9.30am and 2pm. If you are free on that day and willing to help out, please contact the Deputy Headmistress Mrs Jayne Browne on 762 8889.

Thank you in advance for your help and support. We look forward to seeing you on May 24th.

Best wishes
Karl Blackman
Headmaster


Questions 1-14

Read the information below and answer Questions 1-4

Match the pictures below to the appropriate statement. Write the correct letter A-D in boxes 1 – 4 on your answer sheet.

A. Should only be packaged in boxes.
B. The school does not have many of these items to sell at the moment.
C. Should be labelled in one of three ways.
D. The school wants more of these which would be suitable for youngsters.

IELTS General Training reading test

1.
Show answer

B – ‘Miscellaneous – Ornaments, pictures, toys, games, handbags etc. Please place in boxes and write the names of the items inside clearly on the box.’

2.
Show answer

C – Kitchenware – any items are of use (e.g. plates, cups, glasses, cooking utensils, kitchen equipment such as food mixers etc), currently in short supply.

3.
Show answer

D – Clothes – Please place washed items in bags or boxes and mark them‘For Men’, ‘For Women’ or ‘For Children’

4.
Show answer

A – ‘Books– complete books (no missing pages), we are especially looking for children’s novels.’

 

Questions 5-9

Look at the statements below. In boxes 5 – 9 on your answer sheet write,

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

5. The event is being held to raise money for school facilities.
Show answer

FALSE – ‘All profits will be used to assist in funding of the new children’s play ground in the centre of town. ‘

6. The school is collecting fresh fruit and vegetables to donate to a homeless shelter.
Show answer

FALSE – ‘If you wish to make a food donation please provide tinned, dried or packet foodstuffs only. Please do not donate food items that are likely to spoil.’

7. Items will be picked up by volunteers between 9.30am and 3pm.
Show answer

NOT GIVEN – ‘If you are able to, please bring your donated items to the school reception (Monday to Friday between 9.30am and 3.00pm).Otherwise, for larger loads, if you are unable to get to school, we can arrange for a member of the team to collect your items.’ – The text does not say when the items will be collected, only when they can be taken to school.

8. Mr William Taylor will make arrangements for items to be collected.
Show answer

TRUE – ‘Please ring 762 8894 and ask to speak to Mr William Taylor our School Liaison Officer who will arrange for one of our volunteer parents to pick up your donation.’

9. All helpers for the event are now confirmed.
Show answer

FALSE – ‘On a final note, we are also still looking for additional volunteers to take care of stalls on the day of the jumble sale. ‘

 


Examples of Books Available at Edgehill School Jumble Sale!

  1. A delightful children’s story suitable for those who have recently started to learn to read. The tale and illustrations follow the story of the heroic Sam and the friends he meets on his travels across Europe. Great fun for parents and children to enjoy together.
  2. A must for any art appreciator.  Informative historical accounts and full page illustrations based upon acclaimed Masters from France, Italy and Germany during the 19th and 20th Century.
  3. Young and enquiring minds will adore this book. Over 500 pages of information ranging from the field of science to history, geography and art. This special addition also includes end of chapter quizzes to check understanding.  A superb learning tool!
  4. Lovers of hiking and the great outdoors will appreciate this! It has lots of information on lesser known tracks for those wishing to escape the more usual paths and trails used by the masses. Enjoy this picturesque part of the country in solitude.
  5. A useful handbook for lovers of the great outdoors.  Informative regarding tips for lighting campfires, setting up and cooking. An up to date list of various places to stay throughout the country.
  6. An academic appreciation and comparison of inspiration in the past.  Exploration of art work in Egyptian and Greek culture and its significance in evolution of creativity.
  7. Stimulate your children’s natural curiosity and artistic flair – a wide range of subject matters are covered, from bird and wildlife – easy to follow steps from creative models and drawings to Plaster of Paris modeling and origami.

The list of book titles has seven story descriptions A-G. Choose the correct title for each book from the list of titles below. Write the correct number i-ix in boxes 10 – 14 on your answer sheet.

List of Book Titles
  1. A Guide to Walks in the Peak District
  2. The Children’s Guide to Bird-watching
  3. European Art
  4. Get the Most out of Camping
  5. Ancient Art
  6. The Children’s Encyclopedia
  7. Creative Pastimes for Children
  8. Mystical Egypt
  9. The Adventures of Sammy Swan


EXAMPLE Book A ix

10. Book B
Show answer

iii – ‘A must for any art appreciator. Informative historical accounts and full page illustrations based upon acclaimed Masters from France, Italy and Germany during the 19th and 20th Century.

11. Book C
Show answer

vi – ‘Young and enquiring minds will adore this book. Over 500 pages of information ranging from the field of science to history, geography and art. This special addition also includes end of chapter quizzes to check understanding. A superb learning tool!’

12. Book D
Show answer

i – ‘Lovers of hiking and the great outdoors will appreciate this! It has lots of information on lesser known tracks for those wishing to escape the more usual paths and trails used by the masses. Enjoy this picturesque part of the country in solitude. ‘
EXAMPLE Book E iv

13. Book F
Show answer

v – ‘An academic appreciation and comparison of inspiration in the past. Exploration of art work in Egyptian and Greek culture and its significance in evolution of creativity.’

14. Book G
Show answer

vii – ‘Stimulate your children’s natural curiosity and artistic flair – a wide range of subject matters are covered, from bird and wildlife – easy to follow steps from creative models and drawings to Plaster of Paris modeling and origami.

Show All correct answers

You have now completed Section 1. Take a note of the number of correct answers, then move on to Section 2.

gifu

Reading practice exercise

 

Reading practice exercise

Brush up on your reading skills with this short text and questions.

Note: The text is NOT full the length of a normal IELTS reading test – this is a shortened version for some quick practice! See if you can complete it under 10 minutes.


Read the text below and answer the 10 questions that follow:

 

Gifu castle is one of the most beautiful sight-seeing attractions in central Japan. The closest township is Gifu, which has a population of approximately four hundred thousand people and is the prefectural capital. There are several noteworthy places in the region, including Ozaki castle and Sekigahara, the site of Japan’s most famous battle, the Battle of Sekigahara (1603) a monumental victory for Ieyasu Tokugawa, the renowned warlord of Edo, now Japan’s capital city, Tokyo.

gifuIn order to ascend to Gifu castle, which is perched atop the seventy metre high Mount Kinka, there is a cable car or for the more athletic sight-seer there are many trails to the castle and museum. The shortest of these trails takes around one hour to reach the castle, at a steady pace. Walking the trails is not recommended during the winter months as the tracks can become slippery and dangerous.

The present day castle which was built with concrete and timber in the 1950’s, is based upon the 16th century building. It was governed and inhabited by the notorious warlord Oda Nobunaga, the most feared of all Japanese warlords who met a treacherous death near the modern day city of Kyoto in 1582, after one of his most trusted generals, Akechi Mitsuhide turned against him. Mitsuhide ordered the buildings of Honno-ji temple be set alight, forcing the great warlord Nobunaga to commit seppuku, the samurai form of suicide.

The castle consists of three levels and contains many displays of weapons, maps, military equipment, portraits of Nobunaga and other artifacts from the period. On the third level, for those without any fear of heights, there is an observation platform from which viewers can look out across the Nagara river valley towards the city of Nagoya.

There is a small cafe and restaurant providing light refreshments near the cable car entrance, a five minute walk from the castle.

Comprehension Questions (True or False)

1/. The present day castle was built in the sixteenth century.
Click here to show the answer

FALSE

2/. Akechi Mitsuhide governed Gifu castle.
Click here to show the answer

FALSE

3/. It takes about one hour to reach the castle on foot.
Click here to show the answer

TRUE

4/. Oda Nobunaga was killed in the Battle of Sekigahara.
Click here to show the answer

FALSE

5/. The population of Gifu is approximately 400,000 people.
Click here to show the answer

TRUE

 

Comprehension Questions (short answer – use no more than 3 words and/or a  number)

6/. Who betrayed Oda Nobunaga, forcing his death?
Click here to show the answer

Akechi Mitsuhide

7/. When did Oda Nobunaga die?
Click here to show the answer

1582

8/. When was the modern day castle built?
Click here to show the answer

In the 1950’s

9/. What is the capital of Gifu prefecture?
Click here to show the answer

Gifu City

10/. What can visitors see from the third floor beyond the river?
Click here to show the answer

Nagoya (City)
matching-questions

Matching questions in IELTS reading

Matching questions in IELTS reading

Matching questions in IELTS readingIn the IELTS reading test, matching questions come in 3 different forms. You could be asked to match a heading to a paragraph (this is covered in the Headings lesson), match two halves of a sentences or match cause and effect. This post will focus on matching sentence halves and cause and effect statements.

NOTE: This post does not cover classifying, which is a slightly different skill and will be covered in future posts.

Matching parts of sentences

Here’s an example of a matching exercises that requires you to match parts of a sentence.

1 This exercise is A. a common ‘matching’ question type.
2 Putting sentence halves together is B. a simple example of this question type.

The correct combination is:

1 – B

2 – A

Useful tip: When matching sentence halves, grammar and logic are important. If you are having difficulty finding the correct answer, begin by eliminating the options you think are wrong.

Practice by matching the sentence halves below. There is no text for this exercise – use the tip above to find the correct answers.

1 Further education is essential if … a … you are hoping for a good job.
2 Degree-level study and beyond … b … is part of building your English.
3 Good teachers … c … is a very useful tool in the job market.
4 The ability to speak English … d … should be self-funded.
5 Completing homework assignments … e … have good students.
Click here to see the answers
1=A, 2=D, 3=E, 4=C, 5=B

Matching cause and effect

Here’s a simple example of a cause and effect matching question:

1 University enrolment has increased a Specialised courses developed to train people.
2 Technology is increasing in the workplace b More competition for places.

The correct combination is:

1 – B

2 – A

Useful tip: Matching cause-and-effect sentences can be difficult as they often rely on reference words, they will not always be in the same sentence with a clear connecting word and there are many ways of expressing cause and effect (see here for a closer look at cause and effect constructions). When matching cause-and-effect questions, you will often find that the linking words and the grammar have been abbreviated, leaving almost note-form sentences. It often helps to build each cause or effect phrase into a complete sentence after you have
matched them. For example:

Question: University enrolment has  increased = more competition for places
Complete sentence: As a result of increased enrolment in university, there is now more competition for places.

 

Practice matching questions

Practice by reading the text below and matching cause and effect in the table that follows.

For many sufferers of dyslexia, the knowledge that they have this learning difficulty came too late to help. Having been through, and often dropped out of, the standard school system, they are left with a low sense of self-worth and the conviction that they are mentally below par. Yet in reality, dyslexics often have above-average intelligence. The problem, it appears, is that they have trouble translating language into thought and thought into language. The two-dimensional world of reading and spelling is a constant source of frustration, and those suffering from dyslexia need more time and help in reading and spelling. Undiagnosed, children see a difference between themselves and their peers but don’t know how to express it to others and continue quietly struggling to compete in a world for which their mind is not geared. Teachers and even other students push them to simply ‘try harder’ or ‘just concentrate and you’ll get it’.

Moving from childhood to adolescence, the situation becomes worse. Young teenagers are academically left even further behind, and this is often noticed by fellow students, an embarrassing situation for people already going through hormonal and biological changes. Anxiety and anger build from repeated failures, low school results and an inability to follow the flow of lessons that other students seem to comprehend with relative ease.

Motivation then becomes a problem as these young teens are mislabelled ‘lazy’, or ’emotionally disturbed’, and some schools then probe into the home life of a student in order to uncover causes for these problems. This inevitably adds pressure to an already tense situation.

Fear of humiliation combined with an unimpressive academic record often combines to discourage students from continuing to university or further education. For those that do pursue an academic path, they often find college just as hard, if not harder. Finding some solace in menial jobs which do not require the academic skills they could never master, many intelligent people with dyslexia never get to explore their true abilities and so are left with low self-esteem that follows them throughout their adult life.

1 Symptoms not recognised in childhood a Lack of ambition
2 Peer pressure b Feeling of inferiority begins
3 Incorrectly diagnosed c Chronic low self-confidence
4 Fear of further humiliation d Deeper investigation into the wrong areas
5 Never realising full potential e Additional stress at an already difficult age
Click here to see the answers
1=B, 2=E, 3=D, 4=A, 5=C
qualifying words

Qualifying word in IELTS reading

Qualifying word in IELTS reading

Qualifying word in IELTS reading

By now, you should be familiar with the idea of looking for key words in the question before looking for the answer in both the IELTS reading and listening test. However, a common reason for IELTS candidates to lose points is by not looking closely enough at qualifying words – words that modify the degree or amount of the main verb or noun.

Compare these two sentences:

  1. Every government believes that education is important.
  2. Most governments believe that education is important.

When you are looking for key words, you should have identified ‘government’, ‘important’ and ‘education’.

However, you should also have identified the qualifying words – in sentence 1, the qualifying word is ‘every’. In sentence 2, this has changed to ‘most’.

 

Now look at the TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN question below.

All governments feel that being educated is significant. 

If you were answering question 1 above (Every government believes that education is important), then the answer would be TRUE. However, if you were answering question 2 (Most governments believe that education is important) then the answer changes to FALSE, because it is not ALL governments, only MOST.

As you can see from the example above, qualifying words are particular important in TRUE, FALSE NOT GIVEN  questions, but they can also be important with other question types.

Here are some more qualifying words that are commonly used in the IELTS test.

  • virtually nil, an insignificant number, negligible, rarely
  • a few, a minority, a small number, occasionally
  • always, everyone, the entirety
  • all but a few, the majority, most, little doubt
  • nil, zero, nobody, absolutely none
  • roughly half, sometimes, neither one way nor the other, no particular emphasis either way

Now practice by reading the short text below and answer the questions that follow.

For most people, traditional forms of culture have little impact on their daily lives. Opera, fine art, classical literature – these are special events, not the common fare of the average household. Popular culture, on the other hand, dominates almost all of our leisure time. We are becoming a nation with very short attention spans, spending most evenings in front of the TV, with very few people making the effort of actually entertaining themselves.

 

Are the following statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F)?

1 Traditional culture has no impact on our daily lives.

2 Popular culture dominates all our leisure time. 

3 Only a minority of people make their own entertainment. 
Check all three answers

1. FALSE – the questions says ‘no impact’, but the text says ‘little’

2. FALSE – the question says ‘all our leisure time’ but the text says ‘almost all’

3. TRUE – the question says ‘only a minority’, which is equal to ‘very few’

 

USEFUL TIP: In the writing test, using qualifying words to make your opinion less dogmatic (strong, or presented as absolutely 100%) can help improve your result. For example:

People on lower incomes never save money. This is too strong

People on lower incomes rarely save money. This is more academic as it allows for exceptions.

 

 

 

reference-words

Reference words in IELTS reading

Reference words in IELTS reading

What’s wrong with this sentence?

Some people believe that a university education should be available to everyone as a university education will help with employment.

The problem here is that ‘university education’ has been repeated – the sentence would have been better presented using a reference word like this:

Some people believe that a university education should be available to everyone as this will help with employment.

Reference words (words that refer back to a previous word or phrase but without repeating it) are very common in IELTS reading, and can often cause some confusion. An important part of understanding a text is being able to identify the reference words and their relationship to other words, phrases or sentences in the passage.

Test your skills – what do the underlined words refer to? Choose the correct letter A-C.

Reference words in IELTS readingNew Zealand is becoming an increasingly popular destination for overseas visitors. It attracts tourists and people on business, but the vast majority come as students. Mostly from Asian countries, they stay for anything from a few weeks to a few years or more, studying at language schools, colleges and universities. New Zealand can offer good homestay accommodation, a clean and beautiful environment and a reasonable cost of tuition. These factors attract an ever-increasing number of overseas students, accounting for millions of dollars in revenue for New Zealand.

It refers to

(a) overseas

(b) New Zealand

(c) a popular destination

Show answer(B) – New Zealand

 

They refers to

(a) Asian countries

(b) tourists and business people

(c) students

Show answer(C) – students

 

These factors refers to

(a) accommodation, environment and reasonable tuition costs

(b) schools, colleges, universities

(c) increasing overseas students

Show answer(A) – accommodation, environment and reasonable tuition costs

 

Now try using reference words the other way round. What reference word could replace the underlined words?

  1. Professor Edwards has been lecturing for 16 years.
  2. Overseas students often find university courses difficult.
  3. The IELTS test is becoming increasingly popular.
  1. Professor Edwards … Show answerHe
  2. Overseas students … Show answerThey
  3. The IELTS test … Show answerIt

 

Tip 1: Subject or object reference words

Be careful – reference words can change depending on whether they are the subject or the object of the sentence. For example:

Overseas students often find university courses difficult.

  • They often find university courses difficult.
  • Overseas students often find them difficult.

Mr Smith works with Mr Jones every day.

  • He works with Mr Jones every day.
  • Mr Smith works with him every day.

 

Tip 2: Singular and plural

When talking generally, you may find that some singular nouns take a plural reference word. For example:

A teacher (singular) should always be prepared. They (plural) should also be punctual.
Tip 3: The dummy subject

Sometimes ‘it’ can appear in a sentence but it is not a true reference word – it doesn’t refer back to anything specific. This is called the dummy subject. For example:

It is commonly accepted that people with a higher education generally work in higher paid jobs.

In the sentence above, ‘it’ does not refer to anything specific, just the general situation.

Practice by reading the sentences below and deciding whether ‘it’ is used as a reference word or a dummy subject.

  1. Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain.
  2. Homework is essential. It allows students to review work they have studied in class.
  3. Admittedly, student depression is hard to investigate as few people are willing to talk openly about it.
  4. It can take up to four years to complete a degree.
  5. Otago is a very popular university. It was the first university in New Zealand.

 

1.  Show answerThis is a dummy subject

2.  Show answerThis is a reference word

3.  Show answerThis is a reference word

4.  Show answerThis is a dummy subject

5.  Show answerThis is a reference word

 

Now test yourself. Read the text below and decide what the underlined reference words refer to.

Academic overdrive?

Student life is becoming increasingly difficult. Not only are students expected to perform and compete within the class, but also to devote time and energy to extra-curricular activities as well as struggle with an increasing load of homework. The push to get into the top universities has caused many overachieving students to take on heavier workloads and more challenging classes.

This push, however, doesn’t end once students reach university. In fact, when they reach the top places they have worked so hard to get into, many students are forced to work even harder than they did in high school. Once in the top universities, the pressure is on to secure a place in the top graduate school. But it doesn’t end there. Once students have graduated with the best results, they find that they must continue to overextend themselves in order to secure the top jobs in their particular field. Such is the emphasis on academic success.

There are many who claim that this entire system is wrong because it puts too much emphasis on measuring achievement and not enough on true learning. This in turn has inevitable effects on the students themselves. In such a high-pressure learning environment, those that find the pressure overwhelming have nowhere to turn. In an academic world measured only by academic success, many students begin to feel a low sense of worth, yet they fear to turn to anyone for help as this would be perceived as a signal of failure, an inability to cope with that which other students appear to have no problem. This can be particularly hard for foreign students as they find themselves isolated without familiar cultural or family ties in their new environment and thus they concentrate solely on their work.

Perhaps the main thing to remember is that although it is important to study hard, school life should also be fun.

  1. This push refers to…… Show answerThe push to get into top universities
  2. They refers to…… Show answerOverachieving students (not just ‘students’)
  3. It refers to…… Show answerThe pressure
  4. There refers to…… Show answerAt top universities
  5. This refers to…… Show answerOverachieving / overextending / pressurised (system)
  6. Those refers to…… Show answerStudents who have overextended themselves
  7. This refers to…… Show answerThe situation where students feel depressed, have low self esteem, feel that they cannot talk to anyone

NB: Identifying the meaning of a reference word is not a question you will be directly asked to do in IELTS.

locating

IELTS reading parallel expressions

IELTS reading parallel expressions

One of the skills that you will be tested on in the IELTS test is the ability to identify parallel expressions – that is, two sentences that have the same meaning but are written using a different structure, vocabulary or grammar.

It involves transforming vocabulary into words or phrases which have the same or similar meaning as the original.

This can be done in two ways:

By different word families:

Our cities are becoming increasingly polluted. Pollution is increasing in our cities.

Or with different vocabulary:

Yet the reality is nowhere near as appealing. The truth, however, is far less attractive.

 

Plocatingractice with parallel expressions

Read the text below and answer the questions.

There is a dark corporate conspiracy at work in the petroleum industry. On television and in the media we are constantly bombarded with images of green trees, promised a fuel that is ’97% cleaner than ever before’ and told we are heading towards ‘a healthier future’. Yet the reality is nowhere near as appealing. Our cities are becoming increasingly polluted as the number of cars continues to rise and petrol emissions show no sign of easing. Much like car manufacturers who market their products under the image of freedom and independence, we are being sold a fantasy which simply does not hold true.

Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE TEXT

1. Who is responsible for the shadowy scheme of selling dreams, not the truth?    Show answerThe petroleum industry. Consider how the language has changed – ‘dark > ‘shadowy’. ‘sold a fantasy’ > ‘selling dreams’, ‘does not hold true’ > ‘not the truth’

 

2. Who sells their product as a symbol of independence?

Show answerCar manufacturers. This is a little easier as the question uses the word family of one of the words in the question (independent). However, ‘symbol’ has changed to ‘image of”.

 

3. What images are we constantly bombarded with?

Show answerGreen trees. This should be the easiest of the three answers as you can match complete phrases in the text.


In the IELTS reading test, there are three ways you can find answers to questions:

1. matching exact phrases in the text Question: What images are we constantly bombarded with? Text: we are constantly bombarded with images of
2. scanning for matching words Question: Who sells their product as a symbol of independence? Text: car manufacturers who market their products under the image of freedom and independence
3. looking for parallel expressions Question: Who is responsible for the shadowy scheme of selling dreams, not the truth? Text: a dark corporate conspiracy at work we are being sold a fantasy which simply does not hold true

As with any useful tip or hint, you need to practice by applying these techniques to an authentic IELTS reading test – take a look at our complete practice tests to try out your new skills.

Do I need Academic or General Training IELTS

Understand meaning in IELTS reading

Understand meaning in IELTS reading

As you’ve probably experienced, it can sometimes be difficult to understand meaning in IELTS reading, and this can sometimes be caused by indirect sentences, where the meaning is (intentionally) not immediately clear.

Consider this sentence – what does it mean?

Understand meaning in IELTS reading“Public healthcare, on the other hand, has nothing like the resources available to those with private healthcare.”

Public healthcare has

a) more resources than private healthcare

b) very different resources to private healthcare

c) fewer resources than private healthcare

The correct answer is  C. Hopefully the context helped you find the answer, but this is not always the case in the IELTS test, so test you skills with the sentences below:

 

Which option A-C means the same as the sentence in bold?

  • One thing that isn’t true about X is that the weather is always bad.
    1. The weather in X is never bad.
    2. The weather in X is always bad.
    3. The weather in X is sometimes good.

      Show answer 3

  • Y is a multicultural city. It’s the biggest city in Z. Most people think it’s the capital. This, however, is a common mistake.
    1. Y is the capital.
    2. Y is not the capital.
    3. Y is not the biggest city.

    Show answer 2

  • It’s highly unlikely that the government will reduce taxes.
    1. Taxes are likely to increase.
    2. The government will reduce taxes.
    3. Taxes probably won’t be reduced.

    Show answer 3

  • It’s a popular misconception that chocolate gives you spots.
    1. Spots are caused by eating chocolate.
    2. Most people are unaware that chocolate gives you spots.
    3. Spots are not caused by chocolate.

    Show answer 3

  • The number of private cars on the roads is getting bigger.
    1. There are more cars being driven than before.
    2. More and more private cars are getting bigger.
    3. Bigger roads are becoming more common.

    Show answer 1

  • It’s not unusual for most Japanese to clean themselves before having a bath.
    1. Most Japanese don’t clean themselves before having a bath.
    2. Most Japanese clean themselves before having a bath.
    3. Most Japanese find cleaning themselves before a bath very unusual.

    Show answer 2

  • Dr Johnson is not unlike his brother Dr Kerr.
    1. Dr Johnson looks similar to Dr Kerr.
    2. Dr Johnson doesn’t like Dr Kerr.
    3. Dr Johnson likes Dr Kerr.

    Show answer 1

  • Peter doesn’t think you should think the worst of people.
  1. Peter thinks you should think the best of people.
  2. Peter thinks you should think the worst of people.
  3. Peter doesn’t think about the worst people.

Show answer 1

 

Using prefixes

Prefixes are also very important when trying to understand more complex sentences. Here are some examples:

  • Miscommunication, even amongst speakers of the same language, can often lead to arguments.
  • Before going to war, governments should carefully consider the possible impact of anti-war protesters.
  • The Olympic Games first began in pre-Christian times, nearly 3000 years ago.
  • After completing university courses, some postgraduates find themselves unable to get a good job.
  • Very few people can maintain a good relationship with their ex-husband or ex-wife

 

Here are some explanations of common prefixes:

Prefix Meaning Example word
Mis- badly or incorrectly Miscommunication
Anti- Opposite, opposed to, against anti-war
Pre- Before pre-Christian
Post- After postgraduates
Ex A state which is no longer true ex-husband
inter- between/among interdepartmental
micro- too small to see with the naked eye microwave
pseudo- false, not true, a pretence pseudoscience
psycho- connected to the mind psychological
quasi- partly, in part quasi-success
eco- connected with the environment ecological
narco- connected with numbness narcotic

 Now try this complete example exercise to practice your skills!

skimming-scanning

Skimming and scanning in the IELTS test VIDEO LESSON

Skimming and scanning in the IELTS test

Video lesson

Skimming and scanning in the IELTS testThis video will help you improve your skimming and scanning skills for the IELTS reading test.

When watching our learning videos, it’s a good idea to take notes of anything you think that is worth remembering – writing down useful tips is a more effective way of remembering them than just listening, reading or watching!

Video 1 of 1 for skimming and scanning in the IELTS test

See below the video for the narration

 

NARRATION:

One of the biggest problems in the IELTS reading test is time. You have one hour to answer 40 questions, which means that you will have to be able to get the information you need quickly. There are three different skills you will need in the test -skimming, scanning and reading in detail.

Skimming means looking quickly at the passage to get a general idea of what it is about. Scanning means looking at the passage for specific information. Reading in detail requires you to carefully read the section of the passage you are looking for the answer in.

Here are some common situations in which you have probably already used these skills. You might skim a newspaper article to see if you think it is interesting enough to read. If you were looking for a telephone number in a directory, you would scan, looking for the specific information you need. If you are assembling a complicated product, you would need to read the instruction manual carefully to make sure you understand all the details of what you have to do.

Skimming and scanning skills will help you find the right section of the reading passage to answer the question. Most questions will then require you to read the section you have found in detail in order to get the correct answer. You should not try to read the entire passage in detail or you will run out of time.

 

 

 

reading-test-checklist

IELTS reading improving your result

IELTS reading improving your result

IELTS reading improving your resultSo you’ve practiced, you’ve read a lot of different articles and journals, you’ve even taken the IELTS test – often a number of times – and you’re still not getting the result you’re looking for in the IELTS reading test. What’s going wrong?

Here’s a handy 5 point checklist to work through when taking practice tests to help you identify your weakness and strengths.

1. Timing

Did you run out of time and not manage to cover all of the texts? This is one of the most common issues candidates face when taking the IELTS reading test. The key here is to focus on your technique, and keep in mind that 60 minutes to answer 40 questions from three different sections is not long enough to read in a leisurely way. You need to be able to read at speed, even if that means you don’t understand 100% of what you read. Often, answering the questions relies on you being able to identify the area where you can find your answer and doesn’t require you to read everything in depth. Also keep in mind that there may well be one or two questions in each section that are causing problems for you – accept that you may not have time to answer them and move on to the next question.

DO: practice speed reading, skimming and scanning, understand that you will not have time to read leisurely, accept that you may not understand 100% of the text you scan.

DON’T: slowly and carefully read the texts, spend more than 20 minutes on each section, get stuck on a question and spend more than 2 minutes trying to find the answer.

2. Did you answer all of the questions?

Although Point 1 in the checklist advises you to skip questions if you can’t find the answer, that doesn’t mean you should leave the answer blank on your answer sheet. In the final minutes before the end of the reading test, put an answer that (a) seems logical (b) suits the requirements of the question – e.g. if the instructions say NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS, your answer isn’t three words (c) very often is a word or words from the text. Remember that you do not lose points for giving the wrong answer, so there’s no harm in taking an educated guess!

DO: Put an answer for EVERY question

DON’T: leave an answer key blank

3. Is there one particular question type that is causing more difficulty than others?

By looking at your answers, check if there is a particular question type that you seem to make more errors with more often than others. For the majority of people, headings style questions and True, False, Not Given questions are the most complicated and result in the most wrong answers, but check for yourself to find your specific areas of improvement. Then go to that section of our our website, or use any other reliable resource, and make sure you study all the subtle nuances of that question type. For example, did you know that True, False, Not Given questions always come in the order of the text? Knowing some tips and hints for each question type can definitely help.

DO: identify question types that you find difficult, study any tips and hints about those question types, practice them repeatedly

DON’T: keep making the same errors with the same question type!

4. For questions you answer incorrectly, do you understand why the given answers are correct and why your answer was incorrect?

Analysing your own work, focusing on the answers you got wrong, retracing why you put that answer and spending time looking at why the correct answer was correct will help you work a lot faster through the reading test. Taking practice tests is a good plan, but you need to spend at least the same amount of time working through the test after you know the answers.

DO: spend as much time analysing your incorrect answers as you did taking the test, even if that means reading the text repeatedly until you can see the logic of the correct answer.

DON’T: simply move on to a new practice test hoping it will improve – without looking at your own mistakes, your result is likely to stay the same!

5. Skim and scan the text, read the question

Understanding the question is key to getting the correct answer – you need to spend time carefully and closely reading the question. You need to read the question with much more caution than the text in general, so if it helps, carefully mark EVERY word – underlining, circling, scribbling, whatever works for you – all of this helps your brain identify all aspects of the question. Here’s an example using a True, False, Not Given question:

Many people believe that the rail network has been slightly improved.

In order to correctly answer this question, you need to identify the following points:

It’s not EVERY person that has to believe this, it relates to the rail network, it uses to the present perfect passive (has been) so refers to something that started in the past and is continuing now or has a current effect, it refers only to SLIGHT improvement. Missing any one of these points can lead to a wrong answer – so read the question carefully.

DO: Read the question word for word, using your pen or pencil to mark the words you think are relevant

DON’T: skim the question and jump straight to the reading text

 

We hope the 5 point checklist helps, but we’re always open to new ideas, so if you have a technique you think would benefit other IELTS candidates!