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Signpost words in IELTS listening

Signpost words in IELTS listening


NOTE: we recommend you take a look at the post on linking words before beginning this page.

In the listening test, the type of linking words you hear can help you predict the general direction of what you hear. You can tell if points are connected as:

• comparisons
• concessions
• additions
• sequences
• opposites
• cause and effect constructions.

These are called ‘signpost words’ (also ‘discourse markers’), as they are a signpost to tell you what is happening next. Understanding and following signpost words can be a very helpful way to improve your IELTS result as it will help you better follow the conversation.


Listen to the recording. You will hear the first part of a sentence. What point do you think it will be followed by? Write the linking word that helped you decide. The first one has been done for you.

Sentence 1 (example): The next point is likely to be an opposite because of the word although.

Sentence 2: The next point is likely to be   because of the word
Show answer SEQUENCE because of the words ‘NEXT STEP’

Sentence 3: The next point is likely to bebecause of the word
Show answer ADDITION because of the words ‘NO ONLY…BUT ALSO’Advertisement

Sentence 4: The next point is likely to bebecause of the word
Show answer CONCESSION because of the word ‘ADMITTEDLY’

Sentence 5: The next point is likely to bebecause of the word
Show answer CAUSE/EFFECT because of the words ‘AS A RESULT’

Sentence 6: The next point is likely to bebecause of the word
Show answer COMPARISON because of the words ‘IN THE SAME WAY’

Linking words in listening are only one example of discourse markers – the words and expressions used to show how speech is constructed. They are particularly useful for you in Sections 2 and 4 of the listening test as they indicate changes in the direction of a thought, idea or opinion. That means if you have a question asking about reading ability and the next question is asking about new additions to the school building, then you can expect to hear a discourse marker announcing the change of topic.

Here are some of the more common signpost words and phrases, with their meanings.

First = This it the beginning of a list of points.
Like = An example is going to be given.
Anyway = This could mean a change of subject or nearing the end of the talk.
I mean = The speaker is about to rephrase or give an example.
So = An effect or a result of a previous point is about to be stated.
Moving on = Another point is going to be introduced.
As I said = The speaker is going to recap an earlier point.
To make myself clear = The speaker is going to rephrase a point.
Right = This could mean the speaker is about to begin,change the subject or is nearing the end of the talk.
To put it another way = The speaker is about to rephrase a point.
This isn’t always so = The speaker is about to give exceptions to or contrasts to a previous comment
Now = The speaker is about to begin a new subject.
Talking about that = The speaker is going to expand on a point.

Test your skills! You can either try completing the text below using the list of signpost words presented above then listen, or you could just listen and complete the answers!

(1) I’d like to thank you all again for coming to this meeting, and to say that I have received apologies from Mrs Brownlow, who won’t be able to attend today. (2), I’d like to talk to you about our English language department. (3) in the last meeting, we are looking for some of you to act as mentors for our international students arriving over the coming weeks. Although our college prides itself on having a welcoming environment in which international students can feel at home from the very first day, we know (4). Feelings of homesickness, isolation and loneliness are somewhat unavoidable, but I would like, as much as possible, to reduce these factors by teaming new students with existing students who have been here some time. (5), I am looking for volunteers to show the new students around, introduce them to people and generally ease them into their studies, so if any of you are willing to help, then please come to my office anytime during the week and let me know. (6), I’d also like to talk to you about a temporary teacher who will be joining us for the next week or so. He will be teaching history and sociology, and substituting for Miss Kinsale until her recovery. (7), if anyone
wants to send her a card then just let me know by the end of the day as I will be going to the hospital this evening to visit her. (8), unless there is anything else you want to add, we’ll close the meeting. I hope to see some of you during the week.

Show answer 1. First
2. Now
3. As I said
4. This isn’t always so
5. To put it another way
6. Moving on
7. Talking about that
8. Right

Show All correct answers

In addition to discourse markers, the intonation pattern of the speaker’s voice can also indicate a change of topic. The tone of voice generally falls at the end of one topic, followed by a pause then starts on the next topic in a higher tone.

Here are 2 examples. In the first part, the speaker has clearly indicated that they have finished by having a falling intonation. The second speaker has a rising intonation, indicating more is to come.

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 035

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 35

All of the model answers on this site are guaranteed band 9

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

The difference between popular culture and more traditional culture is vast.


Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 35The modern and the traditional are often seen, if not as exact opposites, then at least as areas of contrast, and many people hold this to be true of culture. Although there are clear points to support this opinion, there are also a significant number of points that argue against it, as will now be discussed.

The culture of today revolves heavily around changes in technology. Mobile phones, for instance, have become an almost essential part of younger people’s lives, and in this regard it can be said to be an example of the difference. Yet under the surface, it can be seen that this modern trend is actually little more than another method of communication, albeit less personal than speaking face-to-face. In a similar way,  home computers and the Internet, a clear part of modern culture, can be considered to be simply an extension of reading. Using a monitor and mouse rather than a book does not make the two incompatible.

There are some who claim technology is making people less sociable, that culturally communities are isolating themselves with modern appliances. Yet it must be understood that the world can now be seen as a global village, a world wide web which allows people to interact globally.

In conclusion, it is not that the cultures of the past and today are so different, it is simply the methods used to express those cultures which have changed. A culture should flexible, adapting itself to each new generation; if not, then its worth is limited only to historians.

(258 words)

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 034

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 34

All of the model answers on this site are guaranteed band 9

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

It is the responsibility of governments to ensure that environmentally friendly policies are adopted.

To what extent do you agree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 34
The general public has become increasingly aware of environmental issues, and this has led to a demand from some that the government become more involved. Indeed, it could be argued that green issues have been excessively debated. While concern for the environment is very important, a more relaxed approach to problems may have better results.

One significant way in which environmentally sound policies could be followed is by a better standard of education about the issues in question. Granted, this approach may take a degree of organising, yet educating not just children but whole communities would perhaps be more of an incentive than simply passing new laws.

Naturally some people would argue that without passing laws which are enforceable, people would not actively become involved in more environmental approaches. This is true to a point although as people often act only in self-interest; however, through education people will be able to understand that environmental protection is in their own long-term interest.

Balancing this, there is a point beyond which even dedicated communities cannot lead to a better environment, such as in the field of industry. It on this scale government should be legislating, making it financially worthwhile for industry to operate as cleanly as possible or be faced with stiff penalties.

To summarise, the government should use its authority to govern industrial pollution but should at the same time encourage a better standard of education. By having an industrial and community plan, it would be considerably easier to embrace more environmentally sound policies.

(253 words)

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 033

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 33

All of the model answers on this site are guaranteed band 9

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Write about the following topic:

Modern appliances in the home have become more common, leaving no doubt that advances in technology have improved our lifestyle.

Do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.

IELTS Task 2 Writing model answer 33The impact of innovations and inventions in people’s daily lives has increased dramatically. Most homes these days have, at the very least, a washing machine and a microwave, yet this has had both positive and negative effects, as will now be presented.

Primarily, the fact that these appliances have to be paid for, serviced, repaired and replaced means that consumers need to work to maintain this cycle. For example, in some countries the average machine is two or three weeks’ wages for most people. Considering the product’s life span, it can be estimated that many people are working at least two or three days a year simply to cover the cost of the appliance, a calculation which is multiplied by all the appliances we acquire.

In addition, an increasing number of appliances are for purposes that were not previously considered necessities, but through marketing techniques, manipulative advertising and human nature many are now keen to acquire them. Electric juice makers are a perfect example.

Of course, there are appliances which in their basic format have improved our lifestyle simply because of the labour they save. The machine, which saves hours every week on handwashing, is an example of this. It is only when such appliances develop functions beyond their basic use, that they become more expensive but more desirable because of the addition of these extra options that most people never use.

It can therefore be concluded that only by carefully considering the use and relevance of the appliances purchased that they can improve a person’s general lifestyle.

(258 words)

IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing model answer 028

IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing model answer 28


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The table below shows the attitudes to recycling of people in different age groups.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.
IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing model answer 28

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

The table gives opinions on recycling in percentages of people in six different age categories.

At less than 10 per cent, those under 15 and over 71 represent the lowest percentage of people that actively recycle. This figure increased over five-fold to 59 per cent for those aged 15 to 25. The remaining age categories varied between just under half to over one-third of people.

The under 15s represent the largest per cent of people who do not know about recycling. The lowest percentage was those aged 26 to 40, although this figure doubled to eight per cent for those just under this age. Slightly more than a quarter of those aged 56 to 70 knew nothing about recycling, a figure which is four times higher than those aged 41 to 55.

One-fifth of people aged 41 to 55 opted not to give their opinions on recycling, with those under 15 just one per cent behind. The remaining four age groups in this category were within a four per cent range.

(167 words)

IELTS test day listening exercise

IELTS test day listening exercise

For this listening exercise, we’ve used ALL the different question types you will find in the IELTS listening test.

The listening is about a candidate’s experience on test day – this is not a topic you would normally have in the IELTS test (and it is easier than normal IELTS recordings), but is an opportunity for you to get some idea of what other people feel on test day!



Answer the following using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS (this is a short answer question).

1. How did Eileen feel before the test?
Show answer NERVOUS

Circle the correct answer A–C  (this is a multiple choice question).

2. She felt calmer
A. when her friend got her results
B. after she had spoken to her mother
C. the night before the test.
  Show answer B

Complete the sentence below in ONE WORD (this is a sentence completion question).

3. The hardest part of the listening test was ____________________.
Show answer SPELLING

Label the diagram below (this is a labelling a diagram question).

4. In which room was Eileen’s speaking test?
Show answer INTERVIEW ROOM 5

IELTS test day listening exercise

Match a problem with a solution (this is a matching/classifying question).

A. If you feel nervous…
B. If you make a mistake…

5.  stop and rephrase your sentence. Show answer B

6.  stop and take a deep breath. Show answer A

Questions 7-9. Complete the table below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS/AND OR A NUMBER (this is a table completion question).

 The most difficult section  The most difficult question type
 Writing  (7)  Writing about tables
 Reading  (8)    (9)

7. Show answer TASK 1/ONE 8. Show answer PASSAGE 2/TWO 9. Show answer MULTIPLE CHOICE

Choose the correct letter A–D (this is a labelling a diagram question)
10. What does Eileen recommend just before going in to the test?
Show answer C


Show All correct answers

Click here to read the transcript of the recording Teacher: So Eileen, tell me how you felt just before your test.

Well, it was the first time I had taken a test for such a long time that l was very nervous. Actually, didn’t sleep very well for nearly a week before the test. I felt a little under pressure because a friend of mine had got results a week before, and just his he’d done very well. Anyway, rang my parents the night before, and my mother reminded me that there was no point in worrying, and that made me feel a little calmer.

Teacher: So tell me how things went on the day. What about the listening test?

Eileen (student): Surprisingly, the listening test wasn’t as difficult as I’d thought. The hardest part was spelling, but didn’t feel that the sections got much more difficult as the test went on. By the end I felt quite confident in my answers.

Teacher: Tell me about the speaking. What was that like?

Eileen (student): I didn’t make a very good start. From the waiting area, l was supposed to go up to in end of the corridor and turn right. My interview room was on the right, but I the the room on the left and when showed the interviewer my ID he told me I was in wrong room! Anyway, he took me where I was supposed to go so it wasn’t too bad. Anyway, my real interviewer was great She made me feel so relaxed. Before the interview began, she asked me if taken the test before, and when told her was my first time, she just smiled and said “relax. I did find myself getting a nervous, but have little just took a breath and relaxed. As for the actual interview, I felt that I could done a little better but then I suppose most people feel that. Once or twice l realised I’d made a mistake so just corrected myself and went on

Teacher: Okay. What about the writing test?

Eileen (student): Well, I spent a few minutes too long on Task One l had to write about a table, a they’re easier to write about. Actually, I think tables was hoping for a graph because because the title was are the most difficult Task wasn’t too bad though to something I had studied in my class. I wrote a plan, so I just followed what I had written. Near the end I changed a few parts the plan a of didn’t follow my original idea but I still felt that Id done a good job

Teacher: And finally, then, the reading?

Eileen (student): Well, when the examiner handed out the test, l thought the size of the booklet was a little intimidating. To calm me down, I had a quick look through the three passage before began, and didn’t have much problem with the first and the third, but though Reading Passage 2 was quite difficult. There were some multiple-choice questions and I’ve always found them a little difficult. But just left them and moved on, an found I had a few minutes a the end to go back and answer them

Teacher: Good. Well, just before we finish, do you have any advice you would give to someone just about to take their test?

Eileen (student): Yes, a couple of things actually. A few days before the test, look through the work yo have done, but the night before the test, don’t do anything. Relax and go to bed ear In the morning, have a good breakfast. But the most important advice l would give to avoid speaking or listening to anything but English on the day. Listen to the radio when you get up, and take a portable cassette player to listen to when you’re waiting to go into the test room. Don’t speak your native language even if there are people that you know at the test centre.

Teacher: Well, thanks very much, Eileen. When do you get your results?

Eileen (student): Next Friday, I think.

Teacher: I hope you’ve done well.

Eileen (student): Thanks

Comparison and contrast in Task 2

Comparison and contrast in Task 2

Comparison and contrast in Task 2

To present your ideas and opinions clearly, it is important to know how to accurately use comparison and contrast in Task 2 of the IELTS writing test. Here are some the words that you can use:

Comparison and contrast in Task 2

  • while
  • as opposed to
  • however
  • likewise
  • equally
  • in contrast to
  • in the same way
  • in a similar way
  • as well as
  • like the…
  • as …as …
  • similarly
  • whereas
  • by contrast
  • although
  • instead

Practice your understanding of these words by deciding whether the statements that follow are TRUE or FALSE according to the text below.

Read the passage below. Are the statements that follow true or false? They are not in order.

Although they are both highly respected institutions, there are many factors to be considered when comparing the Louvre and the Guggenheim.

The most important factor is the quality of their displays. The Guggenheim is excellently organized and offers fine examples of most forms of art, including traditional, modern and impressionist. The Louvre, on the other hand, lacks this variety of art forms, concentrating more on the traditional.

As regards location, both museums are well situated with convenient access for the public, although they are both a little expensive to visit. The Louvre, however, is a piece of architectural history in itself, whereas the Guggenheim is far more of a modern building with no real sense of history.

Both The Louvre and The Guggenheim have something to offer the art lover.

    Show answer TRUE


Just as the Guggenheim museum displays impressionist works, so too does the Louvre.

    Show answer FALSE


Neither The Louvre nor the Guggenheim is cheap to visit.

    Show answer TRUE


Compared to the Louvre, The Guggenheim concentrates more on traditional art forms.

    Show answer FALSE


The Louvre and the Guggenheim are similar in that they are both well situated.

    Show answer TRUE


The Louvre is similar to The Guggenheim in that it has good public access.

    Show answer TRUE


The Guggenheim and the Louvre are equally respected.

    Show answer TRUE


The Guggenheim is an historic building, whereas the Louvre is relatively modern.

    Show answer FALSE


Contrast can also be shown by using specific verbs, adjectives and nouns. Use the table below as a guide (note how the word family changes depending on the word type).

Verbs: Adjectives: Nouns:
Compare to / with Compared to / with In comparison to / with
Contrast with Contrasting In contrast to
Differ from / differentiate between Different from Difference between
Distinguish between Distinct from Distinction between
Resemble Similar to Resemblance to / with
Vary from / between Variable Variation between

IMPORTANT NOTE: Be careful with the use of comparing and compared

Compared to the Guggenheim, the Louvre has a long history.


Comparing the Louvre and the Guggenheim, the former has a longer history.

More examples

Here are some more examples of comparison and contrast that you could to express comparison and contrast:

While both opera and ballet are considered to represent the finer end of the arts, the former involves more vocal musical content.

DVDs are a highly flexible, user-directed form of entertainment, whereas the cinema is considerably more rigid in its presentation.

Radio plays allow the listener to use their imagination, picturing the scenes and characters involved. By contrast, the theatre presents both characters and scenery.

E-mails are a common form of communication both personally and in business, in the same way as letters were some 20 years ago.

Museums, as opposed to theme parks and other such activities, can offer visitors far more of a cultural experience.

Traditional dances from my country, in the same way as the haka here in New Zealand, are something most people enjoy watching but can’t actually perform.

One of the more obvious changes in communication over the last 20 years is that people are using telephone booths less and less, opting instead for mobile phones.

Giving longer answers in IELTS speaking

Giving longer answers in IELTS speaking

Giving longer answers in IELTS speakingThis post focuses on a formula you can use to help you keep speaking fluently during the IELTS speaking test, especially in Part 2 (the topic card), and follows on from this post about longer answers in the speaking test.

Consider the following question. How could you expand your answer?

Do you think traditions are important?

Now read the candidate’s response below, and answer the questions that follow.

Yes, I do because they give us a sense of connection with the past. This is important because it can bring people together and remind us of the history we share. However, I believe traditions should also be flexible. They should reflect not only the past but also the present. Only by doing this can any tradition continue to have relevance today.

  1. Why does the speaker think traditions are important?
  2. Why is it important to have this connection?
  3. What qualification does the speaker make?
  4. Why is this qualification important?

Read the next section for the answers.

The answers for the four questions above give examples of the formula you can use to expand your topic.

FORMULA + Why + So + But + Then

In the exercise above, this is:

Why? connection with the past
So? brings people together
But? should be flexible
Then? continue to be relevant

Looking at this formula in more detail, you can break your answer down into these sections:

Why? Why do you feel that way about the question? Why is this your opinion?

So? This can also be thought of as So what? Maybe the opinion presented in the first step (why?) is true, but what impact does it have? What’s the positive result of your opinion that makes you believe it?

But? Are there any parts of your opinion that could be considered wrong by other people, or anything that needs to be taken into account?

Then? If the point you raised in the previous section happened, what would be the effect?

Now let’s apply the formula to another question

Example 1:

Do you think smoking should be banned?

Yes I do (WHY? why do you think that?) because of the significant health risks cigarettes present (SO? so what if they have health risks?) This can have an effect on not only the smoker, but also those people in the nearby area who then suffer from passive smoking, as well as on tax payers in general when smokers require additional medical treatment. (BUT? is there anything that needs to be considered from another point of view?) Of course there is the issue of having the freedom to act how you wish, and banning cigarettes could create an illegal trade (THEN? What would happen if the ‘but’ section occurred?) This could then potentially lead to rising crime and more pressure on the police.

Example 2:

Because we are now in a digital age, do you think we should therefore stop following traditional customs?

It can be argued that traditional customs can co-exist alongside more modern culture (WHY? why do you think that?) Both traditional and modern cultures are important as a reflection of history and society (SO? so what if they are important?) We should find ways that the two forms can support each other. (BUT? is there anything that needs to be considered from another point of view?) There are times when modern and traditional cultures are in conflict. (THEN? What would happen if there was conflict?) Digital culture must be considered paramount as traditional culture should not be a handicap to development.

Reading for meaning in IELTS

Reading for meaning in IELTS

This practice exercises follows on from the information in this lesson about understanding meaning in IELTS reading. You should read that lesson before starting this exercise!

Challenge yourself! In the time I have used this exercise with my classes, less than 5% of students scored 100% – see what score you can get!

Read the text below and complete the task that follows.

Reading for meaning in IELTSAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD as it is more commonly referred to, is often erroneously considered to be a relatively modern ailment. In fact, it was first diagnosed as far back as 1845 by Dr Heinrich Hoffman, although it was not until the turn of the century that ADHD was given medical credence as Dr G. F. Still presented a paper to the Royal College of Physicians in England. Since that date, many scientists, doctors and psychologists have vastly increased the fund of information available, slowly reversing the impression that children with ADHD are simply badly brought up. It is now commonly understood that although most children have little difficulty in concentrating on a subject, for those with ADHD, attention spans are short.

However, Robert Ashcroft, Headmaster of Oreno College, is sceptical, referring to such diagnoses as a pseudo-science. The situation, claims Ashcroft, has spawned from a modern trend towards scientifically categorising our actions, and is simply another argument in a fundamentally flawed society that does not wish to take responsibility for its behaviour.

Karen Waters is vocal in her opposition to Ashcroft and his supporters. Working with the Mental Health Board, Waters is concerned that until ADHD is officially recognised, it will continue to be misdiagnosed and sufferers will not get the help and support they need. It would appear that the tide is turning in her favour, as all but a few schools around the country have on their staff professionals trained to recognise the signs, but Waters feels this is not yet enough. Awareness of the condition, she claims, needs to be in all levels of society, not just in schools.

Although few would argue that the symptoms of ADHD can be problematic at times, not everyone sees ADHD as a negative thing. It has been argued that where traditional thinking sees lack of attention, others see boredom and a thirst for action. Those with ADHD are considered to be more creative, more likely to take risks, both physical and academic, so long as there is stimulation in it. The term ‘attention deficit’ is misleading, as what we are really seeing is attention inconsistency. These people have a high level of energy and, if they can find a place in the business community, can work tirelessly and brainstorm with much greater ease than so-called ‘normal’ people. They are intuitive and can work at problems from a different perspective, offering a flexibility that is a positive attribute in business. It is not them, argues Waters, but society itself that is disordered. With such stalwart champions, it is not beyond possibility that those with ADHD will find the support and understanding that their condition requires.


Are the following statements TRUE, FALSE OR NOT GIVEN according to the article? Find evidence for your answer if possible.

1. ADHD is not a new condition.
Show answer TRUE (erroneously considered…modern ailment)

2. It was first identified in a paper presented to the Royal College of Physicians.
Show answer FALSE (diagnosed 1845…Heinrich Hoffman)

3. Ashcroft does not believe in ADHD.
Show answer TRUE (sceptical…pseudo-science)

4. Ashcroft blames families for the situation.
Show answer NOT GIVEN

5. Waters believes ADHD is too easily mistaken for other problems.
Show answer TRUE (misdiagnosed)

6. Not many schools have people available to help.
Show answer FALSE (all but a few schools have…professionals)

7. Most people do not see the negative side of ADHD.
Show answer FALSE (few would argue…problematic at times)

8. The term given to the condition is inaccurate.
Show answer TRUE (term…is misleading)

9. An increasing number of ADHD sufferers are being employed in business.
Show answer NOT GIVEN

10. There is a chance ADHD sufferers will be better understood in the future.
Show answer TRUE (not beyond possibility…find the support and understanding)


True, False, Not Given in IELTS reading – exercise

True, False, Not Given in IELTS reading – exercise

This post is another practice exercise for True, False, Not Given style questions. For the main lesson page on this question type, take a look here: True, False, Not Given in IELTS reading

Ta moko

True, False, Not Given in IELTS reading - exerciseThe practice of making markings on the human body has long been in existence. These days, it is commonly expressed by the wearing of tattoos or piercings, and is symbolic only of a personal attitude. Yet for Maori, traditionally markings on the body, called moko, have a much deeper, symbolic relevance.

Although parallels can be seen between moko and tattooing, there are a number of fundamental differences. Perhaps the most striking is that while tattoos involve the use of needles to inject ink beneath the surface of the skin, moko designs were traditionally chiselled into the skin. A painful procedure, the ink was carved into the body of the wearer by using fine chisels and a mallet.

Another contrast to the tattooing more common today is that each marking had a message which could be read by those familiar with the process. Moko told of the wearer’s family and his tribe, illustrating who was a chief or other member of Maori aristocracy, and such clear markings meant that disputes over birthrights and status were avoidable. Moko spoke of social position within the tribe, and thus they were a dynamic form of marking; as tribe members grew, so too did the number and positioning of the moko. Women were tattooed on the chin once they had come of age, meaning that they were now entitled to speak at meetings. Markings under the nose represented childbirth, the first breath of the young. A moko design on the leg represented speed, on the arm showed occupation. For men, facial moko told a history of battles, injuries and victories, and it is these images that were the first to reach Europe. With wide eyes, open mouth and full facial moko, the Maori warriors were certainly feared by these early settlers.

In recent years, the moko has become synonymous with gang culture, as highlighted in a number of New Zealand-produced movies, yet at the same time has now reached international recognition, with pop stars and other celebrities adopting the designs. This is not a situation which pleases everyone. With so much cultural and historical significance, most Maori are rightfully protective of moko and its various designs. This possibly stems from a fear that Pakeha (the Maori name for the settlers) did not understand the significance of moko. For Maori, it was something which had to be earned, that represented an achievement. Moko were not given to everyone, and permission had to be sought from Maori elders. This was often a long, involved process of discussion because, of course, once applied, the moko could not then be withdrawn. Then, too, the early history of the settlers must be considered. For many Pakeha, it was simply a nice design, a decoration for which settlers used to pay in weapons and ammunitions. They would encourage tribes to fight and return with moko heads for display in European museums, and from this beginning it is easy to understand Maori reluctance to see moko ‘Westernised’.

Are the following statements TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN according to the text?

Moko has an equal significance to tattooing.
Show answer FALSE

Chisels are used in the moko process because it can create fine lines.
Show answer NOT GIVEN

Not only the design but the placement of moko had relevance.
Show answer TRUE

Children were forbidden from wearing moko.
Show answer NOT GIVEN

Warriors wore moko to frighten their enemies.
Show answer NOT GIVEN

Europeans are not allowed to wear moko designs.
Show answer FALSE

Modern moko is only worn by gang members.
Show answer FALSE

Traditionally, moko application involved a process of consultation and discussion.
Show answer TRUE

Pakeha traditionally did not appreciate the significance of the designs.
Show answer TRUE – ‘For many Pakeha, it was simply a nice design

Heads with moko designs were traded.
Show answer TRUE

Show All correct answers