In this final page for these question types, we will review some of the useful tips and hints that can help you achieve a better result.
Here are some tips for completing matching or classifying questions. Tip 1: it is important to remember that the category, such as a person’s name, may appear multiple times in the passage. Tip 2: You will need to consider reference words. For example, the first time Scott Bradley is mentioned his name is used, but the second reference may be introduced with ‘He’. Tip 3: You may not use all of the categories and may use others more than once. The instructions will tell you if you can use the same category more than once so you will need to read carefully.
Now try some practice exercises for matching and classifying questions.
On this page, we will be applying the 6 steps recommend on page 2 to answer a classifying question.
Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows.
To compress thousands of years of history in a few paragraphs is a difficult task, and as with almost any historical point a millennia old, even ‘facts’ are disputable. What is generally accepted is that the first notable new arrivals to Britain came over 2000 years ago in the form of an army of Romans. Conflicts ensued with the tribal populations of Britain, but the organised martial might of the Romans proved superior, and for the following century, Roman influence spread throughout what is now known as England. Yet this was not a true invasion, as it was not until nearly 100 years later that Rome decided it wanted Britain to be part of the Roman Empire. Consequently, in 43 A.D., the first full scale invasion took place in the South East of England. Some thirty years later, Roman control had spread throughout England and Wales, although Scotland had remained defiant. Frequent incursions into England from tribes in Scotland led to the creation of one of Britain’s most impressive constructions – Hadrian’s Wall. The wall was built right across the border of Scotland and designed to protect ‘Brittania’, the Roman name given to England and Wales. Yet for 300 years, invasions from the Picts and the Scots (both tribes from Scotland) continued to harass the Romans. By 400 A.D., with the Roman Empire collapsing due to rebellions in Europe, the Roman army in Britannia was seriously weakened. Invasions by the Picts and Scots pressed deeper into what was Roman control, and new invaders arrived – the Saxons from modern-day Germany.
Classify the following events as occurring
A. before 43 A.D.
B. between 43 A.D. and 343. A.D
C. after 343 A.D.
1. Hadrian’s Wall was built
Now watch the video below to check your answer and confirm the steps you have taken.
With classifying questions, the same six steps are used. From reading the statement, we can use the keyword Hadrian’s Wall to scan the text. Having found the reference, we then look at the list we are classifying against and look for a reference to a time period. Reading in detail, we can see 43 A.D. is followed by the phrase ‘thirty years later’. This tells us that the time period must be between 43 A.D. and 343. A.D.
Now practice with this matching style question (classifying style questions are on the next page).
Read the paragraph below and answer the question that follows.
The majority of gap year programmes involve working in regions requiring external assistance with their development; Melissa Hedges, Director of GYOME (Gap Year Organisation Made Easy) says work placements may involve teaching English to local children, farm work or infrastructure development projects. Since participants in the programmes are helping to bring genuine benefit to impoverished areas, such an experience can be not only personally rewarding, but helpful with future employment searches, employers often holding the view that travel and in particular voluntary work overseas help to develop maturity, independence and team-building skills in potential graduate employees. Employment Agency Consultant Lucy Clarke says such experience can add tremendous value to applicants’ resumes and positively impact on their success at reaching interview stage. She adds that it is helpful for students to plan a gap year placement which will involve functions and responsibilities somehow related to their chosen future career if at all possible, though Scott Bradley warns that some students from some particular study disciplines may find that their own industry is less receptive to the advantages of a gap year than others. For example, graduates of a technology-related degree could find themselves at a disadvantage on their return as knowledge and applications within the industry are so dynamic.
According to the text, who believes the following:
1. A gap year may not necessarily enhance employment opportunities.
Now watch the video below to see how the answer to this question should have been found.
Now we will apply the six steps we looked at to the question from the beginning of the lesson. The first step is to read the statement, then identify any keywords. In this example, possible keywords are gap year, not enhance and employment opportunities. The keywords not enhance suggest that we are looking for a reference to the gap year which is not positive. When locating the area that is relevant, we first find this reference to a gap year. However, this does not fit the keywords from the statement because this section states that it is helpful for students – a positive reference to the gap year. Moving on, we then find this reference to a gap year and also that the industry is ‘less receptive to the advantages’. This reflects the negative reference from our keywords. Now we go to step 4, and look at the list in detail. Finding three names, we return back to the passage and read in detail, confirming that Scott Bradley is the correct answer.
In the previous page, we look at the similarities between matching and classifying question in the IELTS reading test. Now we will look more into this type of question.
There are 6 steps to answering a matching or classifying question. The first step is to read the statement you are matching or classifying. Then you should identify keywords from the statement. From there, you should locate the relevant area of the passage. When you think you have found the relevant area, look at the list you are matching or classifying to (e.g. people’s names, periods in time). You should then read the section of the passage you found in Step 3 in more detail. Finally, you should confirm the correct answer.
In the next page, we will look at applying these steps to an example question.
Read the text below and answer the CLASSIFYING questions that follow. After checking your answers, you should also look at the vocabulary section for this text at the bottom of the page. Speed levels:
25 minutes or more = TOO SLOW!
18 minutes = not bad
12 minutes = good
5 to 12 minutes = very good
less than 5 minutes = AMAZING!
Despite the great strides made in understanding and promoting health, especially in recent decades, there are still a large number of areas for which definitive research is still thin on the ground. Crystal healing, the power of suggestion and positive thinking, even acupuncture, are still not fully understood and there is a strong element of doubt, notably in western attitudes, that these ‘alternative’ options for maintaining or recovering health have any discernible value. However, there are an increasing number of people, dissatisfied with the pharmaceutical approach, who are looking elsewhere to find solutions to ailments.
Although still relatively unknown in many countries, one area that is receiving an increasing amount of attention, both positive and negative, is Quantum Neurology, a technique which redressing imbalances in the nervous system to encourage or allow the body to recognize damaged or weakened areas and act accordingly to strengthen or repair them. This is accomplished with a specific series of upper and lower body muscle strength tests designed to evaluate the entire system, as well as strengthening the nerves with light therapy, and gentle joint movements.
Having strong links to osteopathy, with its holistic approach to treatment, quantum neurology aims to relink the complete nervous system as a whole, and is reported to have had significance success in a wide range of cases. The founder and developer of the system credits the work he was able to perform on his wife following a moderate spinal cord injury and recovery. A lack of realistic treatment options or even a firm diagnosis of cause led Dr Smith, who was already studying to become an osteopath, to investigate the healing power within the nervous system. He was later noted as stating that ‘It was exhilarating to see immediate healing express itself. With well-focused corrections, damaged nerve function was restored. Nothing was added to the body and nothing was removed, simply the stimulation of the Nervous System in very specific ways to elicit the lost function to return.’
Smith has also identified a definition of the nervous system as it relates to quantum neurology. Not only does it refer to the physical body (muscles, bones, and general mechanics), but also what is classed as the non-physical body – that aspect which many people have previously known as an aura or spirit. His work over recent years has been to build a map of the nervous system, both physical and non-physical, in order to explore the functions and healing pathways, much like ‘the electrician commands the flow of electricity of a home through the breaker box and wires.’
According to Smith, for quantum neurology to take effect, a series of very precise manipulations in a clear sequence are required. The specific pattern will vary not only form person to person, but also depend very much on what weaknesses are identified and targeted. However, it is this irregular approach that has caused many to doubt the true effectiveness of the principle. Marek Sczepanski, a researcher from the Institute of Applied Medicines in Poland, has argued that unless a clear, unified approach is applied that can be tested and verified, then there is no clear way to quantifiably prove the effectiveness of quantum neurology.
Other medical debate has focused on the actual tools quantum neurology relies on to rebuild the nervous system. The principle is that it is breakdowns in communication within the nervous system that causes the problem, so tools are needed which can encourage or stimulate this communication, the most common tool being light therapy. Those promoting quantum neurology claim that a direct beam from a visible red laser, aimed directly at the brain stem, can ‘light up’ the entire nervous system, allowing the body to identify weakened or damaged areas of the system and act accordingly to repair them. This has led to others in the medical profession to argue that quantum neurology is not a reliable approach as the benefits of visible red lasers is unproven and unfounded.
Dr J F Penrey has also criticized quantum neurology on the basis not only of what he deems ‘anecdotal case studies’ rather than direct scientific research, going as a far as to say that ‘even the name quantum neurology is a marketing term meant to give the false impression of cutting edge science’.
Dr Kate Barrow follows a more neutral line – comfortable with the concept of the nervous system being able to repair itself to a degree given the right encouragement, she argues that in many, non-severe cases, positive results are largely what is know in scientific circles as dowsing. That is, the results are affected by what the patient wants to happen, rather than what was actually cured or repaired. However, Matteus Enroub, a proponent of quantum neurology, points out that if this was the case, then surrogate testing (where another person is used as the ‘medium’ between the patient and the practitioner) would not be effective. Using another person to test reactions to certain stimuli, where areas of weakness are passed through to the surrogate who had not previously been informed of these specific areas, illustrates that this cannot be a purely psychological phenomena.
Regardless of personal opinions, it is clear that Quantum Neurology is a branch of healing that requires – and deserves – further study.
Classify the following statements as referring to:
Dr J F Penrey
Dr Kate Barrow
Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 1-10 below.
1. Became involved in Quantum Neurology for personal reasons Show answer A – ‘work he was able to perform on his wife following a moderate spinal cord injury and recovery’
2. Believes that a consistent, uniform application is required in order to evaluate Quantum Neurology Show answer B – ‘unless a clear, unified approach is applied that can be tested and verified, then there is no clear way to quantifiably prove the effectiveness of quantum neurology’
3. Argues that even the language used is misleading Show answer C – ‘even the name quantum neurology is a marketing term meant to give the false impression of cutting edge science’
4. Suggests that in milder cases, there could be a psychological factor that promotes healing rather than strict science Show answer D – ‘the results are affected by what the patient wants to happen, rather than what was actually cured or repaired’
5. Tests involving people with no prior knowledge of afflictions means that the effect must be more than psychological Show answer E – the text explains that surrogate testing, using a third person, can reveal weaknesses the surrogate was not even informed of.
thin on the ground = not much of something, rare or limited
discernible = something that can be seen or determined
ailments = another word for sicknesses, aches or pains
redressing = to fix, remedy, put right
holistic = considering the body as a whole, not as individual parts
exhilarating = feel very happy or excited
elicit = to draw out, encourage a response
verified = proven, shown to be accurate or true
anecdotal = based on personal experience not research; not necessarily true
a proponent = someone who supports something
practitioner = someone engaged in an art or profession (commonly medical)
Complete the sentences below using one of the words in the list above. Use each word ONCE ONLY.
This government is a strong of encouraging people to train. Show answer proponent
The government should be doing more to the difference in wealth between rich and poor. Show answer redressing
There is a common belief that chocolate can cause spots, but this is purely – there is no scientific proof to support it. Show answer anecdotal [/true]
Western medicine if often targeted at specific problems, and this can lead to more side effects than alternatives. Show answer holistic
The police interviewed the suspect, hoping to a confession. Show answer elicit
The number of pandas are becoming increasingly . Show answer thin on the ground
He has been studying very hard and I’m happy to say there has been a improvement in his test results.Show answer discernible
Many older people find their health declining as they suffer from an increasing number of . Show answer ailments
When calling the bank, you need to know the password so your identity can be . Show answer verified
If you feel you may have caught the ‘flu, contact your nearest medical . Show answer practitioner
I love sky diving – it’s such an experience! Show answer exhilarating
Ready to try another exercise on classifying? Click here.
Classifying questions are similar to matching questions – the questions are in statement format, and you need to decide which of a limited number of options each statement relates to.
Here’s a very simple example:
Classify the following statement as relating to:
A. the UK
B. the USA
Write the correct letter A-C in the box provided.
Question: Attitudes to the elderly are more traditional
Text: In Britain it has now become common for children to place their elderly relative in care homes, much the same as it is in the USA. In Asia, on the other hand, children are more likely to take the older member into their home to be cared for, as has been done for many generations.
Now watch the video for more information:
Matching and classifying questions use the same skills, so we will present them together. Both of these question types test your ability to recognise relationships between facts, theories or opinions. Here are examples of matching and classifying questions. In both matching and classifying questions, you have to write a letter on your answer sheet. A common error in this type of question is not reading for detail once you have located the area you think is relevant to the question.
Skim the text and answer the questions that follow. You should take no more than 60 seconds to skim the text.
Questions 1 and 2 are skimming questions. Questions 3 and 4 are scanning questions.
Champions of colour blind justice
During the past century, as the United States of America has wrestled with the problem of inequality between blacks and whites, two names remain paramount in the struggle – Martin Luther King and Malcolm X.
Although there were some surface similarities. Both started their own movements, organised rallies and gave many speeches both in America and abroad, yet their approaches and beliefs were radically different. King believed in peace, encouraging only a ‘passive resistance’ with the eventual aim of black and white people integrating and living together peacefully. While King tried to unite the races through peace, Malcolm X, on the other hand, adopted a more direct, aggressive approach. Unlike King, he did not support the idea of integration but separatism, encouraging his listeners to recognise the suffering whites had caused blacks and to live apart in their own communities.
These men were different not only in their approaches to the problem, but also in the religious convictions that motivated them. Martin Luther King’s philosophy of peace and positive reasoning was influenced by Christianity. He was active in the Church and was the leader of the Christian Leadership Conference. Malcolm X started many Muslim groups which practised a violent form of defence against any white oppression, real or imagined.
Despite their very different perspectives, there is one more similarity between these two men Ð both were assassinated. Malcolm X was shot in 1965 at a rally in Harlem, victim of former supporters who had taken his doctrine of violence to heart. On 4 April 1968 King was shot as he was organising a demonstration in Memphis, but little is known of his assassin.
In the current racial climate of America, it could be said that both men succeeded, at least to a degree. There are still racial tensions, but not to the same degree. Whether Malcolm X would have approved or King would be satisfied today is another question.
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Skimming and scanning practice
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Question 1 of 4
Q1: The text is about __________
The correct answer is what Martin Luther King and Malcolm X believed. Although there are references to their similarities and where they were from, this isn’t the focus of the complete text.
The correct answer is what Martin Luther King and Malcolm X believed. Although there are references to their similarities and where they were from, this isn’t the focus of the complete text.
Question 2 of 4
Q2: The text is written ________.
The text is written in a neutral style, presenting mostly facts
The text is written in a neutral style, presenting mostly facts
This page focuses specifically on scanning skills. You should be able to complete this exercise within three minutes.
Answer the following questions using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND / OR A NUMBER.
1. When was the Erasmus study launched? Show answer 1998
2. When did the US Supreme Court overturn the Communications Decency Act? Show answer (June) 1997
3. Name one way companies encourage viewers to surf their sites. Show answer Play games OR download screensavers OR win T-shirts (you only need one of these)
4. What three pressures have prevented tobacco being marketed on the Internet? Show answer Social, legal, political
5. Is the relationship between online marketing and the sale of alcohol clearly understood? Show answer No (‘no one seems to know exactly the relationship between online marketing and alcohol and tobacco consumption’)
As adults, how do we encourage our children to explore the rich resources of the Internet without exposing them to a steady stream of marketing messages, such as junk e-mail or sexually explicit material? This is a question that many people, especially parents, are struggling to answer. Although a solution has not yet been found, one possibility is to filter or block this objectionable material from children without interfering with the rights of adults to view and visit any website they like. When the US Supreme Court rejected the Communications Decency Act in June of 1997, industry and government officials alike looked to computer technology companies to create screening and filtering products to fill the gap left by this court decision.
Started in 1998, the Erasmus study set forth a plan for a family-friendly Internet that would include as a key element filtering, blocking and rating tools for parents, educators and other concerned adults. Much of the debate about appropriate content has focused on the spread of sexually explicit materials online, but there are other, equally insidious aspects. Now banned from an increasing number of traditional advertising markets, cigarette and alcohol companies have turned to cyberspace to reach their future market.
Virtually every major alcoholic beverage manufacturing company has an Internet website which developers claim targets adults of legal drinking age. Many alcohol companies ‘card’ visitors by requiring them to provide their date of birth before entering the site. Most sites also include a disclaimer on the opening screen indicating that visitors must be of legal drinking age. Many children, however, easily bypass these simple precautions by providing falsified birth date information to access these sites. Once inside, it is clear that these companies are creating an environment full of activities that can and do appeal to children and teens. On some sites, visitors are encouraged to play games, download screensavers, and enter draws to win a free T-shirt. Social, legal and political pressures have denied tobacco companies web-based marketing, but there is no shortage of sites devoted to the consumption and glorification of smoking cigarettes and cigars. Pictures of women smoking cigarettes appear on sites which feature cool ways to smoke and offer lessons in smoking ‘tricks’.
Although no one seems to know exactly the relationship between online marketing and alcohol and tobacco consumption, studies have shown advertising to be extremely effective in increasing youngsters’ awareness of, and emotional responses to, products, their recognition of certain brands, and their desire to use these advertised products. This trend becomes even more alarming when the relationships are created between children and spokespersons for alcohol and tobacco products. Alcohol and tobacco advertising and marketing practices are also a cause for concern, with many focusing on the industries’ successful efforts to target youth.
There is no easy solution to the problem, except to monitor online alcohol and tobacco promotions and develop any additional safeguards needed to protect youth that are already at risk. We are quickly moving into a digital age that will profoundly affect how children and youth grow and learn, what they value, and, ultimately, who they become. Helping our children and teens navigate in this digital culture presents both a challenge and an opportunity
This practice exercises follows on from the information in this lesson about understanding meaning in IELTS reading. You should read that lesson before starting this exercise!
Challenge yourself! In the time I have used this exercise with my classes, less than 5% of students scored 100% – see what score you can get!
Read the text below and complete the task that follows.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD as it is more commonly referred to, is often erroneously considered to be a relatively modern ailment. In fact, it was first diagnosed as far back as 1845 by Dr Heinrich Hoffman, although it was not until the turn of the century that ADHD was given medical credence as Dr G. F. Still presented a paper to the Royal College of Physicians in England. Since that date, many scientists, doctors and psychologists have vastly increased the fund of information available, slowly reversing the impression that children with ADHD are simply badly brought up. It is now commonly understood that although most children have little difficulty in concentrating on a subject, for those with ADHD, attention spans are short.
However, Robert Ashcroft, Headmaster of Oreno College, is sceptical, referring to such diagnoses as a pseudo-science. The situation, claims Ashcroft, has spawned from a modern trend towards scientifically categorising our actions, and is simply another argument in a fundamentally flawed society that does not wish to take responsibility for its behaviour.
Karen Waters is vocal in her opposition to Ashcroft and his supporters. Working with the Mental Health Board, Waters is concerned that until ADHD is officially recognised, it will continue to be misdiagnosed and sufferers will not get the help and support they need. It would appear that the tide is turning in her favour, as all but a few schools around the country have on their staff professionals trained to recognise the signs, but Waters feels this is not yet enough. Awareness of the condition, she claims, needs to be in all levels of society, not just in schools.
Although few would argue that the symptoms of ADHD can be problematic at times, not everyone sees ADHD as a negative thing. It has been argued that where traditional thinking sees lack of attention, others see boredom and a thirst for action. Those with ADHD are considered to be more creative, more likely to take risks, both physical and academic, so long as there is stimulation in it. The term ‘attention deficit’ is misleading, as what we are really seeing is attention inconsistency. These people have a high level of energy and, if they can find a place in the business community, can work tirelessly and brainstorm with much greater ease than so-called ‘normal’ people. They are intuitive and can work at problems from a different perspective, offering a flexibility that is a positive attribute in business. It is not them, argues Waters, but society itself that is disordered. With such stalwart champions, it is not beyond possibility that those with ADHD will find the support and understanding that their condition requires.
Are the following statements TRUE, FALSE OR NOT GIVEN according to the article? Find evidence for your answer if possible.
1. ADHD is not a new condition. Show answer TRUE (erroneously considered…modern ailment)
2. It was first identified in a paper presented to the Royal College of Physicians. Show answer FALSE (diagnosed 1845…Heinrich Hoffman)
3. Ashcroft does not believe in ADHD. Show answer TRUE (sceptical…pseudo-science)
4. Ashcroft blames families for the situation. Show answer NOT GIVEN
5. Waters believes ADHD is too easily mistaken for other problems. Show answer TRUE (misdiagnosed)
6. Not many schools have people available to help. Show answer FALSE (all but a few schools have…professionals)
7. Most people do not see the negative side of ADHD. Show answer FALSE (few would argue…problematic at times)
8. The term given to the condition is inaccurate. Show answer TRUE (term…is misleading)
9. An increasing number of ADHD sufferers are being employed in business. Show answer NOT GIVEN
10. There is a chance ADHD sufferers will be better understood in the future. Show answer TRUE (not beyond possibility…find the support and understanding)
The practice of making markings on the human body has long been in existence. These days, it is commonly expressed by the wearing of tattoos or piercings, and is symbolic only of a personal attitude. Yet for Maori, traditionally markings on the body, called moko, have a much deeper, symbolic relevance.
Although parallels can be seen between moko and tattooing, there are a number of fundamental differences. Perhaps the most striking is that while tattoos involve the use of needles to inject ink beneath the surface of the skin, moko designs were traditionally chiselled into the skin. A painful procedure, the ink was carved into the body of the wearer by using fine chisels and a mallet.
Another contrast to the tattooing more common today is that each marking had a message which could be read by those familiar with the process. Moko told of the wearer’s family and his tribe, illustrating who was a chief or other member of Maori aristocracy, and such clear markings meant that disputes over birthrights and status were avoidable. Moko spoke of social position within the tribe, and thus they were a dynamic form of marking; as tribe members grew, so too did the number and positioning of the moko. Women were tattooed on the chin once they had come of age, meaning that they were now entitled to speak at meetings. Markings under the nose represented childbirth, the first breath of the young. A moko design on the leg represented speed, on the arm showed occupation. For men, facial moko told a history of battles, injuries and victories, and it is these images that were the first to reach Europe. With wide eyes, open mouth and full facial moko, the Maori warriors were certainly feared by these early settlers.
In recent years, the moko has become synonymous with gang culture, as highlighted in a number of New Zealand-produced movies, yet at the same time has now reached international recognition, with pop stars and other celebrities adopting the designs. This is not a situation which pleases everyone. With so much cultural and historical significance, most Maori are rightfully protective of moko and its various designs. This possibly stems from a fear that Pakeha (the Maori name for the settlers) did not understand the significance of moko. For Maori, it was something which had to be earned, that represented an achievement. Moko were not given to everyone, and permission had to be sought from Maori elders. This was often a long, involved process of discussion because, of course, once applied, the moko could not then be withdrawn. Then, too, the early history of the settlers must be considered. For many Pakeha, it was simply a nice design, a decoration for which settlers used to pay in weapons and ammunitions. They would encourage tribes to fight and return with moko heads for display in European museums, and from this beginning it is easy to understand Maori reluctance to see moko ‘Westernised’.
Are the following statements TRUE, FALSE or NOT GIVEN according to the text?
Moko has an equal significance to tattooing. Show answer FALSE
Chisels are used in the moko process because it can create fine lines. Show answer NOT GIVEN
Not only the design but the placement of moko had relevance. Show answer TRUE
Children were forbidden from wearing moko. Show answer NOT GIVEN
Warriors wore moko to frighten their enemies. Show answer NOT GIVEN
Europeans are not allowed to wear moko designs. Show answer FALSE
Modern moko is only worn by gang members. Show answer FALSE
Traditionally, moko application involved a process of consultation and discussion. Show answer TRUE
Pakeha traditionally did not appreciate the significance of the designs. Show answer TRUE – ‘For many Pakeha, it was simply a nice design‘
Heads with moko designs were traded. Show answer TRUE